Friday, May 31, 2019
Child dilatement is critical throughout the early years, during this time the development of the brain occurs. The development of the brain contributes to the functioning of the body. The anatomy of the brain is do up of neurons and divided into four different lobes. The temporal role, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes control a variety of cognitive functions. The brain controls simple functions such as fine and egregious motor skills, vision, and memory. According to Meadows (1993, p.263), at all sorts of levels in the brain there are programs for functions such as breathing, sleeping, and producing coherent language. Brain development in peasantren is alert during the early years. During the early years, children brains are active enabling children to learn a variety of information. Many studies have been conducted and they have concluded a healthy lifestyle, material activity, and exposing young children to a variety of education material assist with child development . The first few years of a childs life is crucial as far as his intellectual as well as socio-emotional abilities are concerned (Bose, 2000). Brain DevelopmentBrains and the more nonessential parts of the offensive system are made up of neurons (Meadows, 1993 p. 266). The brain is made up of neurons, axons, dendrites, and synapse. They all have their individual job that contributes to the functioning of the body. The weight of the brain increases as a child develops into adulthood. According to Siegler & Alibali (2005, p13), the changes in the size of the brain make it possible for advanced thinking. The neurons are the functioning core of the brain (Brotherson, 2005). The brain begins to develop in the mothers womb and continue to develop as the child develops. The neuron has branches protruding from the cell sending signals to the synapse and axon. The synapse and axon shapes the brain which allows connections to be made. Young children learn new information when they follow the same routine on a regular base. If a parent repeatedly calls a child a certain name, then connections form that allow the child to recognize that name over time and he or she will begin to oppose to that name (Brotherson, 2005). Through repetitive experiences the axons and synapse strengthen causing learning to take place. The brain is divided into four major lobes the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. Each lobe contributes to cognitive development in young children.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Cultural Difference between Mexicans and Americans While Texas leader Stephen capital of Texas initially had no contempt toward Mexicans, the Anglo-American citizens in the area did. The American Texans of the 1800s defined Mexicans as a race alien to everything that Americans held dear (De Leon 4). This sentiment would aid as the primary catalyst to the Texas secession from Mexico. When Austin began colonizing the area, he envisioned a place in which Anglo-Americans and Tejanos, Mexicans living in Texas, could live together. Eventually, though, the public opinions of conglutination American settlers in the territory and in Washington would make him realize that the goal of unity between the two groups was impossible.There were many cultural bricks move by Spaniards, English, Mexicans, and Americans, which built a wall of cultural difference between the Mexicans and Americans so massive that it would lead to war. The Spanish and the English laid the first bricks during the six teenth part century. The English viewed the Spanish as heartless and genocidal (De Leon 4). Ironically, the Spaniards cruelty to Indians in Latin America was the primary reason for the Englishs characterization. The Spaniards devotion to the Roman Catholic Church made the chasm between the predominately Protestant English and the Spanish grow even wider.The Spaniards continued to lay more bricks through their domination and influence everywhere the inhabitants of Mexico. The Catholic Church became Mexicos largest landowner and moneylender (Cantrell 105). Today America prides itself on religious freedom however, during the 1800s America viewed any religion former(a) than Protestant as a threat. The Anglo-Americans laid the largest set of bricks with their be... ...niversity William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, 1958.4.Crane, William Carey. Life and Select Literary Remains of Sam Houston. J.B. Lippincott & Co. Philadelphia, PA, 1884.5.Del Castillo, Griswold. The Treaty o f Guadalupe Hidalgo. University of Oklahoma force Norman, OK and London, 1990.6.De Leon, Arnoldo. They Call Them Greasers. Austin University of Texas Press, 1983.7.Hitsman, J. Mackay. The Texan War of 1835-1836. History Today. 1960 10 (2).8.Lester, Charles Edwards. Life of Sam Houston. J.C. Derby New York, 1885.9.Long, Walter Ewing. Stephen F. Austins Legacies. Steck-Vaughn Co. Austin, TX, 1970.10.Stenberg, Richard R. The Texas Schemes of Jackson and Houston, 1829-1836. hearty Science Quarterly. 1970 50(4).11.Weber, David J. The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846. Albuquerque University of New Mexico Press, 1982.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Post Modernism and Architecture If one were to walk around and casually investigate five people what post modernism was they would probably get five different answers or none at all. It is one of those indefinable academic monetary value that applies to many different fields of study. Most people seem to understand what it means individually but few agree collectively. To make matters even more than complicated, it is often used in discussions about deconstruction. To some Post Modernism is an excuse to pile together oodles of wild and crazy decor, to others it is another role model of the weakness of standards and values. While some think that it is trangressive resistance to the sureness of categories, to others a handy way to describe a particular house, dress, car, artist, dessert, or pet, and to others it simply everywhere already. Clement Greenberg defined post-modernism in 1979 as the antithesis of everything that he loved. The lowering of aesthetic standards caused by the democratization of culture under industrialism. Where to the highest degree people agree though is that post modernism first started with architecture in the 1950s. It occurred as a reaction against the international Style. So that is the aspect that I am going to constrict on in my paper. As post modern applies to architecture it means The combination of Modern techniques with something else usually traditional building.First off Some of the most famous architects that concentrate on post Modern Design are Alvar contralto, and Robert Venturi. Alto is probably the most famous out of the three that I named. Alto was born 1898 in Kuortane on February 3. He received his diploma of architecture in 1921 from the Institute of Technology which is located in Helsinki. He had semiprivate architectural office in Jyvskyl from 1923-27. He was married to a fellow architect Aino Marsio in1924. She shortly after died in 1949. From the times of 1927 through 193 3 he had another private architectural office this time it was in Turku. The last private office that he had was in 1933 it was in Helsinki. From the time period1943 to 1958 he was the Chairperson of the Association of Finnish Architects and Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which is in Cambridge USA. In 1952 he remarried to another architect by the name of Elissa Mkiniemi. In 1955 he became a member of the finish academy and... ...t Modernism can hardly be talked about without deconstructionism also being mentioned. Deconstruction is when the architects think that the design of societies buildings should match societies present state. For example todays society is chaotic, so the architecture should be chaotic too. For example the buildings columns and structure are crooked and the walls tilted. Deconstruction is a kind of post modern design. They seem to directly relate to each other. Deconstruction is post modern with a twist it is never straight and it is ceaselessly crooked lines the walls can be tilted and the structures all crazy like. My opinion on the whole mess is that some of the architecture can be sincerely beautiful but others can be extremely screwy. I personally have always had an interest in architecture so this assignment, after I figured out what I was supposed to do, was fun. I am not going to become an architect though, I like animals to much and I take aim to be veterinarian. My favorite piece that I saw was the Getty Museum. Just the way that it is set and designed to look old but has all the beautiful sweet stone and materials. It was just the first one to catch my eye.
Racism in Toni Morrisons Song of SolmonMilkman is born on the day that Mr. Smith kills himself trying to fly Milkman as a child wanted to fly until he found out that people could not. When he found, that only birds and airplanes could fly&emdashhe lost all interest in himself (9). The novel Song of Solomon is about an African American man nicknamed Milkman. This novel, by Nobel Prize winner Toni Morrison was first published in 1977, shows a great pile of the African American culture, and the discrimination within their culture at the time Song of Solomon takes place. In part one, the setting is in a North Carolina t causesfolk in the 30s and 40s. Part one introduces readers to not only Milkman, but also to his family and friends. His father holds power in the African American community because he has his own business and is ambitious. Milkmans mother is a center figure in the community simply because her father was the doctor. Milkman has a mysterious unmarried Aunt, with a single miss and granddaughter. He also has a friend, Guitar who is a member of a group of seven African American men dedicated to keeping the ratio between blacks and whites the same. throughout the novel, Milkman gradually learns about his families past as well as forgotten pieces of his own childhood.In part two, Milkman goes south to his fathers hometown. He is looking for a sight that his father and aunt had found long before. When he does not find the fortune he begins trying to find where it went. This takes him to where his great grandfather and mother originated. Milkman last is led to the town where he is a direct descendant of the towns legend, Solomon. It is in this town that Milkman finds himself and becomes his own m... ... lied for it, killed for it, (247). For her revenge, after all of the Butlers died Circe says I want to gain vigor it all go, make sure it does go, and that nobody fixes it up. I brought the dogs in to make sure (247). She allows everything they loved t o be destroyed.Morrison shows readers a side of American History r atomic number 18ly seen. She shows the deepness of prejudice and how many different ways it has effected people. While she does this she also tells a story of soul searching, Milkman tries to find himself among many people who are confused and ate up by hate and prejudice. In the end, he is able to find who he is and where he stands on all of the issues that are passing on around him. When he gets this understanding Milkman retrieves, and achieves his childhood dream of flying. Works CitedMorrison, Toni. Song of Solomon. New York, Penguin Books USA Inc., 1987
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
One of the most controversial debates that rages constantly in this country is the argument over whether seat of government penalisation should be outlawed. there are two basics arguments within the debate over capital punishment First is the question of whether capital punishment is moral, or more simply put, whether it is well(p). And second is the question of whether capital punishment is constitutional. Although the death penalization has come far into the forefront recently, the constitutionality of the death penalty is non a new question. The death penalty has never been outlawed nationally per se, but for a period in the mid 1970s the Supreme Court changed the rules round capital punishment so that it was nearly impossible for a state to put a prisoner to death under any circumstances. The problems that death penalty opponents have with capital punishment can be found in the Bill of Rights, or more specifically, the fifth and eight amendments. The fifth amendment gives every citizen of the unify States the right to "due process of law", meaning full access to courts and proper representation, etc. galore(postnominal) believe that a great number of inmates on death row have not been given due process, and that no one should be put to death if they have not been given their right to it. The eighth amendment bars the government from doling out any "cruel or unusual punishment" to its prisoners. Although it is certainly debatable whether execution is cruel and/or unusual, many believe that it is, and therefore is a violation of the eighth amendment. There are many facets to this argument, and even an updated Supreme Court ruling is unlikely to quell the debate. There is also another very contentious point in the debate over capital punishment. Obviously, the penalty of death is the most final punishment possible. Many death penalty opponents say that the capital punishment should never be used in a case where the jury or judge is no t 100% sure of guilt. They say that, because it is impossible to ever be 100% sure about anything, the death penalty should not be used when soulfulness might be innocent.
One of the most controversial debates that rages constantly in this country is the argument over whether nifty punishment should be out(p) justiceed. There atomic number 18 two basics arguments within the debate over capital punishment First is the question of whether capital punishment is moral, or more simply put, whether it is right. And gage is the question of whether capital punishment is constitutional. Although the death penalisation has come far into the forefront recently, the constitutionality of the death penalty is non a new question. The death penalty has never been outlawed nationally per se, but for a period in the mid 1970s the Supreme Court changed the rules about capital punishment so that it was intimately undoable for a state to put a prisoner to death under any circumstances. The problems that death penalty opponents have with capital punishment faeces be found in the Bill of Rights, or more specifically, the fifth and eight amendments. The fifth amendm ent gives every citizen of the United States the right to "due process of law", meaning full access to courts and proper representation, etc. Many believe that a great number of inmates on death row have not been given due process, and that no one should be put to death if they have not been given their right to it. The eighth amendment bars the government from doling out any "cruel or unusual punishment" to its prisoners. Although it is certainly debatable whether execution is cruel and/or unusual, many believe that it is, and therefore is a violation of the eighth amendment. There are many facets to this argument, and even an updated Supreme Court ruling is unlikely to quell the debate. There is also another very disputative point in the debate over capital punishment. Obviously, the penalty of death is the most final punishment possible. Many death penalty opponents say that the capital punishment should never be used in a case where the jury or judge is not 100 % sure of guilt. They say that, because it is impossible to ever be 100% sure about anything, the death penalty should not be used when someone might be innocent.
Monday, May 27, 2019
The state of nature Is the term used to describe a lawless state of forgiving behavior, wherein all people are free of legal and moral restraint. It would create a state where all people would be able to act on their wants and desires without fear of punishment from a governing body, as there wouldnt be one, and that man would only have to fear the revenge from other people against their actions. In this essay, I depart be outlining the views of both Hobbes and Locke on the state of nature and drawing a conclusion from their opinions.Hobbes view on the state of nature is that such a thing would lead only to a state of war. He believed that without moral or legal constraints, mankind impart simply pillage, murder, and plunder In monastic order to get what they desire, regardless of the views of others. In a state of war, man go forth use power as he sees fit In order to survive and with no clear definition of rights or duty, each Individual will be free to Judge the rights and duties of others and of themselves.There will be no duty to keep other people safe and out of harm and no-one will have the explicit right to live or to keep heir property. If another says that you hold something he needs to survive, you would have no right to deny him as there is no law or right outlining that it was yours and yours alone. As our desires are never satisfied and we have a continuous want of things, man will continue to overturn others if it means he gets what he wants in life, whether or not he truly needs it.He believes in the state of nature translating to a state of anarchy, as no human will ever be satisfied with what they have and will always strive for more. Hobbes claims that In a lawless state, we may not wish designate arm onto others, but we will be constantly aware that other people may wish to harm us. In order to prevent organism the volt, we would attack first In order to stay alive, thus becoming the aggressor. Self-preservation In a lawless state, In Hobbes opinion, would only ever lead to strife as man turns on man In order to keep themselves alive.Due to this, we would never trust another person and the lack of alliance or committedness would lead to us all being equally vulnerable. So despite the lack of rights or duty, each of us are equal in a state of nature, as we are all equally able to be pushed over by the person beside us, whether they are friend or otherwise. Hobbes is very some(prenominal) in agreement that living in a state of nature would be truly awful. Locke, however, doesnt completely agree.He doesnt believe as Hobbes does that scarcity In confederacy and living in a state lawlessness would lead to man killing man In order to stay alive. He believes that people will provide themselves with natural moral principles that we are all inclined towards. Locke drew this belief from his belief in God and the creation of Man and all things on the Earth. By this logic, we have a duty to value others from harm. We are therefore obligated, as Gods creations, to punish those that cause harm to others, and those principals would be our natural obligations.He also believes that we cannot claim property unless our labor helped create what is on the land, but we still have no lawful right to it and the supposed right to it is not dependable. He proposed that removal from a state of law would create a underframe of democracy among men where they would govern themselves and keep themselves in equal measure in order to create a fair semblance of society. Locke thinks that society can exist in a state of nature and exist informally, so he disagrees with the account that living in a state of nature would be awful in any sense.He believes that people can and will work together to protect themselves and each other as we have an obligation to care for other people as a natural instinct. By Lockers reasoning, man would eventually place into an unspoken social contract and form a crude government to b etter protect their rights and promote organization in their society. I believe that although a state of nature would initially lead to man taking whatever he pleased from others and doing what he had been previously unable to do, eventually a form of society would emerge.People cannot continue without governing themselves and eventually they would create some form of law in order to govern themselves and protect their rights and duties. Initially living in a state of nature would be awful because there would be the breakaway from lawful restraint and that new freedom would lead to complete uproar as the population of the world indulged in all they had been unable to do. I still, however, believe that Lockers state of things would prevail and that man would find a way to swot up themselves in order to survive and beat the inevitable scarcity.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
A) How could an infection in Caris nasal passages and pharynx blossom forth into her sinuses? Mucous membranes of the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and middle ear are connected by ducts in the throat.B) What is a cough reflex? Describe the process that Caris respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing? A cough reflex has both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) components. Pulmonary irritant receptors (cough receptors) in the epithelium of the respiratory tract are sensitive to both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Stimulation of the cough receptors by dust or other inappropriate particles produces a cough, which is necessary to remove the foreign material from the respiratory tract before it reaches the lungs. A long drawn and deep inhalation followed by a complete closure of the glottis, which results in a strong exhalation that suddenly punches the glottis open and sends a blast of air through the upper respiratory passages.C) Which social organisation fou nd in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Caris lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter? Macrophages are present (wandering phagocytes) that remove dust particles and other rubble from the alveolar space.D) How would the resistance of Caris airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lungs? The lung aptitude is decreased because the air space is already filled with mucus and fluids therefore she cant take in enough oxygen. The extra mucus and fluids put extra pressure on the lungs.E) How would Caris lungs compliance (the effort required to fly off the handle thelungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia? The fluid makes it harder to expand the lungs because the fluid makes the alveoli sticky and unable(p) to open/expand.F) How would fluid in Caris lungs affect her total lung capacity? Her lung capacity would go down because the air space is already being taken up by fluid.G) How does the elevation of Caris respiratory rate alter her refined ventilation? The elevation of Caris respiratory rate should increase her minute ventilation.H) Normal blood oxygen saturation levels are greater than 94 pct Caris blood oxygen saturation level was 90 percent at the time of her exam and an initial arterial blood gas analysis done when she was admitted to the hospital revealed her arterial Po2 was 54 mmHg. How do these clinical findings link up to the internal respiration in Caris body? Caris oxygen saturation level was 90% and the Po2 of would show that her arteries are having too much oxygen. A normal resenting mmHg is 40% and exercises lower Po2 level. A normal resting oxygen level is 94%.I) Which of the symptoms Cari has described are due to lack of oxygen and reduced oxygen exchange at her tissues? Cari said she is panting like a dog is from the lack of oxygen and reduces her oxygen exchange.J) As Caris PCO2 rose how was oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin affected? As Caris Pco2 rose, how was the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin affected? The oxygen carrying of hemoglobin volume with the rise of Pco2 testament decrease since the Co2 will take O2s.? Caris pH and Pco2 will decrease and her rate of breathing will also be decreasing.K) How would you have expected Caris decreased PCO2 and alcalescent blood PH to have affected her breathing? Caris pH and Pco2 will decrease and her rate of breathing will also be decreasing. L) How would electric pig of oxygen enhance Caris central drive to breathe? The fluid in her lungs makes ithard to expand because the fluid makes the alveoli sticky and it cant expand and open. Cari will breathe better when oxygen was administered to her.M) Which anatomical structures in Caris respiratory system were initially involved? The structures involved are the trachea, nasal, pharynx, and larynx, and the lungs.N) Why was Cari plagued with a chronic mucklers cough?Cari is plagued with a chronic smokers cough because she has a 20 year his tory of smoking.O) Which damaging effects of tobacco smoke led to Caris impaired respiratory defenses mechanisms? There are damages to the epithelial with those damages comes the bodys repair process.P) How did pneumonia affect Caris lung exploit?Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to cause human infections, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It results in an inflammatory response in spite of appearance the small air spaces of the lung (alveoli).
Saturday, May 25, 2019
There are days when I wish marathoner werent even Invented-Yet I try to call back life without social media, and it makes me sad to realize how many people I would no longer be in contact with. The people I propound with the most on Faceable are non the people that Im closest to in life. Instead its the people who either live in other cities or nominate moved on to other schools and our lives no longer intersect on a daily or weekly basis. Im able to stay in situation with these people in a way that I wouldnt be able to without Faceable.Were able to share articles, books, recipes, and ideas. Im able to see them accomplish life goals, get married, get under ones skin families. Although these friendships are not the same as the friendships I have with my close friends and family, I still value the connection. Social media and smart phones are now a permanent part of society, and I think that is, for the most part, a positive thing. L, for one, am going to try to set aside my phon e and ignore Faceable for hours at a time, and Im going to get out of the bait of touching my phone during family and school times.I want to someday have a family, and when I do, devices willing not be allowed at family meetings, so it makes sense to get out of the habit now. Im going to continue to post interesting articles and photos when I see them. But Im not going to constantly check to see how many likes and comments have. As for use my smartened in public, thats not really an Issue for me. Im usually daydreaming. anticipate up from your phone. turf out down the display. Stop watching this video. Live life the real way.This shows me that the rate of successful relationships has gone down because people are to busy using their phones for testing and social media Instead of Interacting with each other. I think that smart phones have been ruling peoples social life. I think that the message I picked will aid me later In elite. I would definitely recommend this video to famil y and friends because it has a deep message in it and it could help in their life. Mobile resound and Social Media By sucroseCultural Perspective I-J/ England By now, if you spend any time on Faceable, youve probably seen the Look Up video. Relationship with smart phones and social media. I hate how it has become a reflex smartness werent even invented. Yet I try to imagine life without social media, and an issue for me. Im usually daydreaming. Look up from your phone. Shut down the people are to busy using their phones for testing and social media instead of interacting with each other. Message I picked will help me later in life.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Abstract The United States is currently facing an overcrowding crisis in its prisons today. Increased rate of crime and the refusal by the relevant state political relation activity to expand the number of correctional facilities has put a strain to the existing prisons. This has been recently been revisited in the national forums with calls from the concerned stakeholders to address the situation before it gets by of hand. Overcrowding according to prison authorities has reached peak levels to an extent that inmates ar forced to share cells. The negative impacts of overcrowding are known and they include aggression and a high likelihood of disease spreading (Paulus, P et al 112). This situation needs to be arrested. There exist many strategies on the table that can be used to curb overcrowding. These would range from building new facilities, alternative correctional methods and proper designs of the correctional facilities. (www.johnhoward.ab.ca). The purpose of this short essa y is to apply all the telling and writing schools acquired, use them to convince my instructor on why I should be allowed to tackle the above topic. In this paper, I shall look at the resources that are theyre touching on this topic, and use them to present a solid case and position regarding the topic. This all is meant to prove to my instructor that this is a topic precious tackling and that I am the right person.The possible thesis statement for the essay will be The federal government should allocate adequate resources to alleviate the business of overcrowding in our prisons. This thesis statement emanates form a personal belief and strong conviction that the situation as it stands in our prisons breeds more problem that it seeks to solve. The government has a key duty to provide essential services to all the citizens of this nation in spite of the status in life. The inmates are no lesser human beings than us ad deserve all the resources possible to make their stay in prison meaningful. There are two very circumstantial reasons that have aroused my intense interest of covering this specific topic. The first is my background and secondly is my interest in championing for human rights. Having been born and bred in a crime prone environment I have a first hand experience with criminals and a better understanding of why people muff in crime. The political, social and economical factors that can lead to crime. The prisons are supposed to be correctional facilities and not to excessively punish and waste the potentials possessed by the inmates. In writing this research paper I intend to utilize a large number of resources. The Internet and the library will provide a good source of information on overcrowding. Goggle scholar for example has lots of articles covering this topic. For example an article by Anne Bolduc our crowded prisons provides useful insights (Pg 45-57). From the library, a book by Stephen D, et al (Americas correctional crisis, Pg 12-56) f ocuses on the topic. There will be supplemented by other journal articles and materials from the web. This is an interesting topic and I plan to invest a lot of my time to expound more on the existing information.Works CitedPaulus, P, Cox V & McCain, G Death rates, psychiatrical commitments, blood pressure and perceived crowding as a function of institutional crowding. Environmental psychology and non-verbal behavior, 3, 1978. 107-116Prison overcrowding. John Howard Society of Alberta, 1996. Retrieved on 21/09/07 from http//www.johnward.ab.ca/pub/c42.htmAnne Bulduc. Our crowded prisons, animals of the American academy of political and social science. 1985, 45-57Stephen D. Gottfredson, Sean McConville. Americas Correctional Crisis. Prison populations and public policy. Greenwood Press, 1987, 12-56
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Beauty When the Other Dancer is the Self written by Alice Walker, is a gentle and easy to understand story. It is not that the story is a boring and no highlight. When reading the book, its like I am hear my friends story. Alices emotion changed totally different before and after the accident. Before the accident, she described herself as if she was the around beautiful and thinking(a) girl in the world. When Alice was precisely two and a half years old, when her father was chosen which kids to take with him to the fair, she knew that it would definitely be her, because she was the prettiest.When she six years old, she learned by heart the longest Easter speech. In her beautiful dress, Alice rose to give a speech in a great wave of love and pride and expectation. People praised her to be the cutest things and she was proud about that. The way Alice described herself and how other people applauded and admired her show a very sure-footed and some(a)time a bit of haughty in her. Tw o years later, Alice was an eight years old tomboy. Like almost other kids, she was trying to keep whatever her older brothers do. But because she is a girl, so instead of getting a gun, she could only play with her bow and arrow.This is the turning point of the story, when the accident happed and safe and sound changed Alices life. She was shot in the eye by the BB gun of her brothers. The doctor said that Alice would likely to be blind, not only one but two eyes. She was terrified but what she care the most is not about whether she could see or not. It is her beautiful that she cared about. She cicatriceed how people would look at the glop of whitish scar on her eyes. She was no longer the prettiest and the cutest girl. For six years, Alice did not raise her head and stare at anyone.The scare took everything from her her beauty, her pride and her person from within. Alice asked her mother and sister whether she changed. What does she unfeignedly mean by the word change? Her beauty or her personality? The answer was no but this was because Alices mother and sister did not want to hurt her or because they really thought that she had never changed? What they saw in her is her personality not her appearance. However, Alice at that time was only a little girl. I do not expect she will care or think deeper about things and people around her.The eight years old girl only cared that people would never admire or applauded her again. To the little Alice, beauty was too important. She hated her eyes, she abused it every night and she praised for beauty. Six years later, Alice was comfortable enough to find a good doctor and got her glop removed. This event, on more time, change her life or in another word, her attitude toward life. Alice moved from a closed person who only saw the world with black color into a positive and active person. She won the boyfriend of her dream, made plenty of friends and got highly good result in study.The appearance was no longer important to Alice. She talked about her beautiful classmate with a sarcastic voice Ironically, the girl who was voted the most beautiful in our class (and was) was later shot twice through the chest by a male companion, using a real gun, plot of ground she was pregnant Nineteen years later since the accident, Alice was no more a little girl she had a little daughter named Rebecca. Still, deep inside her, the scare that her different eyes would make her little baby felt ashamed and she prepared herself for that.But no, Rebecca did not scare of her mom. Instead, the baby saw a entire world in that eye. She saw her mother eye as the most wonderful thing on earth. This totally pulled Alice out of the past. She was no more hangdog of her difference. She understand that the most cherish thing of a person is not the out-side appearance but it is the beautiful personal inside. Again, Alice saw herself as a beautiful, whole and free person. The story ended with a happy ending that Alice finally found herself and gained back her confident.However, I question myself that what if, Alice was never found such a good doctor, and the scare would never be removed. Will she change? Will she realizes that the inner personality is the most important? Apparently from the story that Alice only changed when she got some part of her beauty back. Maybe because at that time she was just a small girl who did not understand much about life and what is the true up value of it. If the scar still there, maybe she would change someday when she grew up and maybe she would never change.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Mainstreaming is an distinguished issue and materialism that has a direct impact on all parties involved, including educators, students and p arents. Mainstreaming is a matter that has become very controversial and therefore it requires important awareness and mind from all peoples involved. One essential way of gaining this understanding and awareness is by reviewing what mainstreaming really is, as well as the positive and negative aspects that may arise from it. Defining the Issue Mainstreaming.Mainstreaming, now more normally referred to as inclusion, is thought of as the integration of exceptional students into regular breedingal settings, in which emphasis is placed on participation rather than placement (Perry, Winne & Woolfolk, 2000 p. 136). A class room that is mainstreamed, is one which includes many different types of learners in other words, mainstreaming is a classroom that accommodates students with disabilities and those without, as well as those students who are t hought of as cosmos gifted with an IQ score of above average.Disabled children in a mainstreamed classroom may vary greatly in the types of disability they major power affirm. For example, children may have one or more of the following disabilities physical, behavioral, mental or learning disability. It is evident then, that a classroom that is mainstreamed will and so present a routine of challenges for the teacher, since he or she must accommodate to so many different needs of the students. The main purpose of mainstreaming is to equally have a bun in the oven and promote a typical classroom experience for all students (Lyness, 2001, p.3).However, this does not exclude the usage of outside support services such as teachers service or resource rooms. Therefore, the basic idea of mainstreaming is for students to discover assistance, while also benefiting from a regular classroom atmosphere. Positive Viewpoints of Mainstreaming There are a number of interesting points that su pport the idea of mainstreaming. For example, in a mainstreamed classroom all particular(a) training students must have an Individual Education computer programme (IEP).An IEP is an annually revised program detailing present achievement level, goals and strategies, drawn up by teachers, parents, particular(a)ist and if possible the student (Perry, Winne, & Woolfolk, 2000, p. 138). The use of the IEP is geared to accept the needs of the limited(prenominal) teaching student. This is an issue that should be further educated and explained to the parties involved, most importantly the parents, since most of them pure tone that their child may not be receiving the support that they need in order to perform adequately in a regular classroom.As mentioned previously, students in a mainstreamed classroom receive support services such as teachers aids and access to resource rooms. Resource rooms are generally equipped with materials that are designed to come across the needs of the s pecial educational student. A student may spent as much time as they need in the resource room with a special education teacher in order to receive the extra help they need. some other point that supports the idea of manstreaming is the fact that it seems to be upright for all students, some(prenominal) disabled and non-disabled.For example, placing special education students in a regular classroom reduces the risk of the student as being labeled or stigmatized. This point stands out clearly in the statement by Perry, Winne & Woolfolk (2000) that Segregation away from the mainstream in special classes robs disabled students of the opportunity to learn to participate fully in society, robs non-disables students of the opportunity to develop understanding and acceptance of the disabled, and increases the likelihood that the individual will be stigmatized (p. 139).Also, a classroom that includes and involves different types of learners is one that will be more accepting of the diffe rences present amongst the students. According to studies by Lyness (2001), research has shown that students without disabilities who are in a mainstreamed classroom accept and value the differences in their classmates, have enhanced self esteem, and a genuine capacity for friendship. It is important for students to respect the differences of their peers, which is what a mainstreamed classroom helps to accomplish.Negative Viewpoints of Mainstreaming Along with the good points of mainstreaming come a number of interesting points that do not support the idea of mainstreaming. For example, in a mainstreamed classroom a child may not feel a sense of belonging from other children. This may been displayed in the form of teasing or ridicule, in which the special education students self esteem is greatly affected. Feelings of inadequacy to keep up with non-disabled students may also arise amongst special education students.Perry, Winne & Woolfolk (2000), state that disabled students potbel ly be just as socially isolated in a regular class as they would in a special education class, across the hall across the country (p. 139). Another pessimistic viewpoint of mainstreaming is the great demand that is places on the teachers. With so few teachers available and the heroic amount of students in need of assistance, it is impossible for teachers to focus special attention on individual students with special educational needs.This creates a problem for both the teacher, whose job becomes absolutely over whelming and stressful, as well as the special education student who lacks the vital support and attention that he or she may need. Mainstreaming may also place pressure on special education students. For example, a special education student may feel that he or she may have to perform at the same level as his or her fellow classmates even though the disability they possess prevents them from doing so.Fracine McNamara states how mainstreaming is very difficult for special nee ds children ?and it is hard enough for a regular education child to keep up with the curriculum and the world, it is even harder for a children with road blocks (Pantazis, 2000, p. 11). My Opinion As this paper demonstrates, I also agree that there are positive and negative aspects that are associated with mainstreaming. I do agree that children should have individual programs that support their needs, as they would receive in a special education program if these needs can be met within a regular classroom, all the better.I also retrieve that by placing special education students in a regular classroom, this can increase their motivation to perform well in school. Often, when children are placed in special education classrooms, they do not perform to the best of their ability because they are stigmatized into thinking they can not do better. I also believe another advantage of mainstreaming is the fact that special needs children may begin to model the positive behaviors of regular studentssuch as completion of homework, improved social skills and age appropriate behaviors.This is especially important for children with behavior problems, since they often may need a positive role model in order to perform to the best of their ability. I also believe that in some cases exceptional students are very good in non-academic areas such as sports, drawing and mainstreaming allows these students to share their skills with regular students. This, in turn, is beneficial for both parties.However, I also believe that in some cases mainstreaming is not the best option for all special needs children. Some childrens needs go far beyond what a regular classroom can offer. Self-contained programs are necessary for these types of children, programs that teach children skills that will be useful to the in the real world, and also prepare them for community living. These life skills may include personal hygiene, money managing, basic household chores and safety.Also, severely hand icapped children need to be in contact with other students who share a common affliction. This is not likely to happen in a mainstreamed classroom since regular students outnumber special education students. By taking a closer look at the definition of mainstreaming as well as the positive and negative aspects associated with it, one can perhaps acquire better understanding and awareness of the issue.As this paper has demonstrated, there are both positive and negative viewpoints of mainstreaming, which in turn, cause large amounts of controversy. However, the most important issue, which must not be forgotten, is it is vital to help all students obtain the best education possible. References Lyness, D. (2001). http//www. kidsheath. org Pantazis, S. (2000). http//www. epinions. com Perry, N. , Winne, P. , Woolfolk, A. (2000). Educational Psychology. Scarborough Allyn and Bacon Canada.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Professional DeveloPment AP Spanish Language T sever completelyying auditory modality erudition Special Focus 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 1 8/15/08 25934 PM The College Board Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership crosstie whose mission is to connect assimilators to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,400 schools, colleges, universities, and other(a)(a) educational organizations.Each year, the College Board serves seven million savants and their pargonnts, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges with major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and coning and larn. Among its best- cognise programs ar the SAT, the PSAT/NMSQT, and the Advanced Placement Program (AP). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is substantiate in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns.For further randomness, visit www. collegeboard. com. The College Board ac manageledges all the third- take offy content that has been intromitd in these materials and respects the intellectual property rights of others. If we have incorrectly attri entirelyed a seeded extender or overlooked a publisher, please contact us. Page 14, 16 Lluvias en Costa Rica dejan 18 muertos from communicate de las Naciones Unidas, October 19, 2007 (http//www. un. org/radio/es/ exposit/6528. html). apply by permission of the United Nations. 2008 The College Board.All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, AP Vertical Teams, connect to college success, and the acorn logo atomic number 18 registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National moral excellence Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services whitethorn be trademarks of their respective holders. Visit the College Board on the web www. collegeboard. com. 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 2 8/15/08 25935 PM Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Brant Hadzima 2. Pre-AP earshot Comprehension Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ann mar 3. General Strategies for AP Spanish Listening Comprehension . . . . . . . . . 31 Brant Hadzima 4. Listening Strategies for Multiple-Choice Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 maria redmon 5. Listening Strategies in Preparation to Speak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Daizha Heberling 6.Listening Strategies in Preparation to Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Jill Pellettieri 7. most the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 8. Ab bug out the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 iii 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 3 8/15/08 25935 PM 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 4 8/15/08 25935 PM Introduction Brant Hadzima Newfound Regional High work Bristol, New HampshireThe AP Spanish Language mental test is an assessment intentional to look out a educatees overall level of articulateness in Spanish. This summative language examination exercises a variety of trusty assessments that require assimilators to demonstrate competence and fluency in Spanish. Most recently, the examination has been revised to best assess au whencetic employment of the language, and the spirit and intent of the new examination is based wholly upon assessing integrate language skills. The four essential skills required to communicate fluently in a language be reading, penning, speaking, and earshot.These skills are interconnected, and therefore the AP Spanish Language mental testination does not assess them separately. Virtually e very aspect of the examination requires students to integrate all four of these skills in some form in order to run a particular t train. In preparing for the examination it is crucial that the teacher instruct, practice, and assess all of these four individual skills. Although ideally var.es should be designed to integrate skills as much as possible, it is important to first undertake that all four skills are properly fortifyed.One netnot simply produce that because a student toilette hold open fluently in a language, he or she wad also speak it with the very(prenominal) level of competence. The skills may be intrinsically interrelated, but they for sure do not develop uniformly. In some instances it may be necessary to allocate more time and trial to master one proper(postnominal) area of competency than another(prenominal). in that respectfore, the intent of this unit is to focus predominately on one of the four essential skills hearing apprehension. Instruction, practice, and assessments have been specifically designed to hone audience encyclopedism skills.This unit arouse be used as a full AP Spanish audition comprehension unit, or components of the unit may be utilized for additional remediation in earreach comprehension as packed. 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 1 8/15/08 25935 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension The authors have made every effort to offer up appropriate pedagogical research as well as practical suggestions for kinsfolkroom strategies designed to develop auditory sense comprehension skills. As the title states, this special focus unit is based upon integrating listening comprehension skills across the modes of communication.There are several modes of communication that are assessed in the AP Spanish Examination, and consequently the unit is separated into five sections to address these modes Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Skills GeneralStrategiesforAPSpanishListeningComprehension ListeningS trategiesforMultiple-ChoiceAssessments ListeningStrategiesinPreparationtoSpeak ListeningStrategiesinPreparationtoWrite Finally, although listening comprehension prompts on the AP Spanish Language Examination will for of necessity vary in style, stage, and content, the authors have endeavored to address a variety of means in which listening comprehension can be assessed.It is the intent of the authors to provide not only research-based theory but also practical strategies that can be readily employed and also further adapted to address all styles of listening comprehension assessment. 2 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 2 8/15/08 25935 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies ann mar Alamo Heights High School San Antonio, Texas The Challenge of AP Listening Comprehension Success on the AP Spanish Language Exam requires highly developed listening comprehension skillsskills that cannot be achieved in a one-year AP course.Success depends on vertical teamingthe coordinated work of a ll the teachers from the put downning levels through the AP course. To lead the intentions of equity and access to AP success a reality, we need to provide ALL students at every level the opportunity to develop strong listening skills. To start teaching with the end in mind, all teachers in the program must(prenominal) be familiar with the AP Exam, and in particular with the role listening comprehension plays on the test. Four separate parts of the test, totaling 60 percent of the score, rely to some extent upon the students talent to ensure spoken Spanish.A definition of those AP Spanish Language Exam tasks that include a listening component go afters. Multiple-Choice Listening (20%) This section includes a series of short and long dialogues and narrations interrogation a students ability to comprehend the main idea, understand details, build inferences, choose predictions, and infer social relationships. The test consists of 30 to 35 questions and lasts close to 3035 m inutes. Formal Writing (Integrated Skills) (20%) One of the three sources students must incorporate in their formal essay is an audio preserve, which is played 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. ndd 3 8/15/08 25935 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension only once. Students must take notes and refer to the source in their essay, synthesizing rather than merely summarizing. Informal Speaking Simulated Conversation (10%) Students participate in a talk, creating 56 responses of 20 seconds each to audio prompts. Students follow a functional script, reacting to the recorded stimulus. The task requires real-time processing for immediate response the thread of the conversation may include un stocked twists requiring stainless listening comprehension and quick thinking.Formal Oral Presentation (Integrated Skills) (10%) One of the ii sources for the formal oral presentation is an audio recording played only once. Students must take notes and refer to the source in the oral presentati on, comparing rather than only summarizing. There are additional challenges. The listening passages include a patient of variety of regional accents and cover a wide range of academic, social and cultural topics. The recordings may include seatground distractions such as music or ambient noise, and may have a rapid rate of delivery as is normal in radio countersign. Pre-AP StrategiesTo start preparing students for these challenges from the start, I have outlined 10 strategies that teachers of beginning and intermediate levels can use to build students listening skills starting at the beginning levels. The strategies, sample activities, sources, and rubrics proposed here are meant to contribute to the gushing exchange of ideas and experiences among teachers. I encourage teachers to try these and other strategies and share your successes and problematicies via the AP Electronic DiscussionGroup,and plane sectionandprofessionalmeetings. Principles for Building Listening Comprehens iondodge 1 Teach in Spanish and teach to the highest degree the Spanish-speaking world. Strategy 2Getthemostoutoftextbook listening materials. Strategy 3 Design listening activities that provide evidence of difference of opinion, including note taking. Strategy 4 Use au becausetic materials, with sustain tasks. Strategy 5 Develop generic tasks for listening, and use them often. 4 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 4 8/15/08 25935 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Strategy 6 Vary the evaluation of listening tasks making it appropriate to the purpose of the task. Strategy 7 Develop your skill at decision appropriate listening materials on the web.Strategy 8Getstudentsspeaking with native speakers early on, and use technology to share their conversations with classmates. Strategy 9 Teach and practice component skills homogeneous recognizing cognates, listening for gist, etc. Strategy 10 Create a culture of listening in your classroom and program. Strategy 1 Teach in Spanish, and teach about the Spanish speaking world. From Spanish I onward, use Spanish to teach. Teach and use the haggle and expressions needed for classroom routines right from the start. Classroom book of instructions and interaction is authentic communication, and is comprehensible, because it is here and now. Established routines help minimize the need for English explanations. Team with your whole department to educate administrators, counselors, and parents about your approach. Praise and designation occasional random rewards for attentive students who immediately follow instructions given in Spanish. The more students know about the countries, cities, regions, personal and human geography, history, art, conflicts, challenges, and traditions, the advance fit they will be to understand authentic listening passages produced in and for the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world.Throughout the program, we need to build students knowledge of the Spanish-speaking world. Assign stude nts a country, and then sporadically ask them to report to the class about that country, regarding the topic at hand. For instance, in a unit on the environment, students report on the park system, endangered species, or environmental challenges of their country. In a unit on careers, have them research and report on two or three large employers in the country, or an aspect of the economy of the country. In a unit on food, each student can provide details of the national cuisine.This token of reporting can begin at the earliest levels, with research in English, Spanish, or both. Strategy 2 Get the most out of the textbook listening materials. Use the listening activities in your textbook, then reuse them and recycle them. Consider having listening quizzes or listening tests separate from other elements to emphasize its importance. Include easy, short passages and longer, more difficult 5 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 5 8/15/08 25935 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehens ion ones.On tests, sometimes you can use listening passages you have done previously in class, but with different questions. This will reward students for paying close attention during practice activities that are not for a grade. When the textbook provides listen along audio recordings of reading passages, start the performance by listening to a minute or two without looking at the written text, just to let students see how much they can catch without reading. lay down students jot down the lecture they hear on a piece of paper, then share with class, writing a list on the board. so read along, and do textbook reading activities. Then go back over the list. Praise the class on how much they could hear, and note to them how their skills improve throughout the year. The abutting day, listen again without looking, and see if they feel they understand more. The goal is to build students confidence in their ability to improve their listening skills. Strategy 3 Design listening activ ities that provide evidence of utilization, including note taking. Students should DO something opus listening in order to provide evidence of engagement.Ideas for types of evidence follow notefamiliar linguistic communication bring outdownallnumbersyouhear ( trusty for weather reports, sports give-and-take, economic intelligence service) checkwordsheardoffalist( manipulate the list ahead of time, or have students predict words they might hear) fillinachartwithinformation fillinapartialscript(leave out cognates, familiar words, or numbers, etc. ) composedown final resultstobasicwho, what, when, where, why questions answerpreparedtrue/falseormultiple-choicequestions usethumbsuporthumbsdowntoansweryes/noquestions Attachment A (p. 3) provides a simple chart students complete as evidence of engagement while listening to a series of interviews with native speakers found on a University of Texas weathervane site. Strategy 4 Create scaffolding tasks to help students to appro ach authentic materials from the start. Use authentic listening passages, full speed right from the beginning levels, but scaffold the action by at first providing tasks that support, rather than test, students understanding. To make the listening more accessible to students, choose 6 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. ndd 6 8/15/08 25935 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies passages on topics you are working on in your textbook. You can twosome authentic listening passages with short written texts on the same topic, providing background knowledge, peculiarly if the material or setting is unfamiliar to students. endure students with unusual names of people, organizations, or locations mentioned in the passage, as these names are especially difficult to catch. Use a listening process, analogous to the reading process, including the following steps.A. Prelistening activity Activate introductory knowledge of style or the topic make predictions based on a headline, photograph, or t heme per passwordalize by relating to students experience connect to studies in other classes. Tell students the topic, encourage brainstorming of known vocabulary, then offer to preteach five vocabulary words they dont know but think theyll need to understand the program. You could get the class to make a list of 10 words, and then you could translate the 5 words they decide they need the most. B.Have students listen with a purpose, providing concrete evidence of their comprehension. Focus student attention on specific elements, and require each student to show evidence of what was heard. Build in opportunities to hear the listening passage more than once. bear extension tasks for those who have absolute the first task on the first listening, letting others continue to focus on the basic skill. At times, provide transcripts to follow when listening, to help students recognize words they know when they see them, in the stream of nomenclature. C. Cooperative listening later studen ts provide some evidence of what they hear themselves, have students share their results viva voce with a confederate, noting the partners answers in another color, for instance, utilise a green pen. This will allow you to distinguish what was gathered unconditionally from the details students got from a classmate. Be sure to require all students to note or check off what their partners heard, even if the students already wrote down what they themselves heard. On a final listening, or with a transcript, students can verify what was actually in the recording. D. Apply/connectHave students use the information gained in listening in another task such as writing a summary, making a comparison, making a prediction, 7 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 7 8/15/08 25936 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension connecting to personal experience, reflecting on the education process, writing about strategies, etc. Attachment B (p. 14) illustrates scaffolding by using the listening p rocess in a simple Checklist activity. Novice-level students can successfully listen to an authentic source to develop the ability to recognize known vocabulary in the stream of authentic speech.The students simply listen to a passage and check words they hear, and skip words that are not in the passage. Then they compare lists with a classmate, listen again, and finally check their work against a script. The checklist and two colors of pens will allow the teacher to evaluate each students engagement in the activity, independent and cooperative listening skills, and the ability to extend or apply what was learned. The sample activity in the attachment was designed round a Radio Naciones Unidas report on torrential rains in Costa Rica. Strategy 5 Develop generic listening tasks and use them often.Many Web sources have high-interest audio news and information with accompanying written information. When the files are available to download and save on a ready reckoner, teachers can de velop activities around these sound files, and keep them for future use. But it is difficult to find the time to prepare specific questions about todays news each week, and umteen great Web sites have audio files that are not availablefordownloadingandthatmaynotbeavailableforreusenextyear. Generic tasks cut down preparation time and allow the listening task to capture routine, which will help build confidence.Attachment C (p. 18) Pesca las palabras can be used to engage novice listeners in any authentic listening source. The sample activity in attachment C was used to listen to a BBC Mundo report on domestic workers in Latin America in a take 2 class. Attachment D (p. 21) is a generic form to use while listening to any audio or video newscasts, and is based on the journalistic questions who, what, when, where, why, and how. For interest, vary the prelistening task and the application task according to the topic of the newscast you choose. The video news broadcasts found on the We b site Univision. om provide a wealth of short listening segments to use with this form. Strategy 6 Vary the evaluation of listening tasks, making it appropriate to the purpose of the task. WhenBUILDINGlisteningskills,useaprocess-orientedrubricsuchastheFormative Listening Comprehension evaluation rubric (Attachment E, p. 22). This rubric evaluates four areas 8 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 8 8/15/08 25936 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Engagement Independentlistening Cooperativelistening ApplicationofinformationgainedthroughlisteningThis pliant rubric recognizes the importance of attention to the whole listening process. It can be used to assess any of the listening tasks involving the listening process outlined in Strategy 4. WhenEVALUATINGlisteningskills,teachersshouldusemoreobjective measures, such as multiple-choice questions. Alternatively, students can take notes and answer open-ended questions or summarize. Then teachers can use a more product-oriented ru bric, evaluating the students ability to capture the main idea, understand most details, make predictions and inferences, and use linguistic cues to infer social relations.WhenINTEGRATINGskills,teachersshouldcreatetasksthatrequirestudents to listen, then use the information the students hear in writing and speaking tasks. Strategy 7 Develop your skill at finding appropriate listening materials on the Web, and share your findings with others. Work with your technology department to ensure that all teacher and student computers at school have the necessary software to view and listen to Web-based materials. With one teacher computer and speakers, all students can hear sound files on one computer. If you have the ability to project onto a large screen, you can share video clips from your computer with students.Encourage the library and computer resource center to make headphones available for students to borrow, so they can do their listening there. If you have a teacher Web site, incl ude links to Web sites with audio. Many Web page programs also allow you to upload audio files to your site. Some sharp Web sources for listening follow Radio Naciones Unidas http//radio. un. org/es/ This is an excellent source, since files are not copyrighted, the schedule is searchable, numerous programs have transcripts, and files can be downloaded to your computer. Click on Abrir archivo to view a list of recent short news items.Click on the title ofthenewsitemtoseethetranscript. RIGHTCLICKonthefilebuttonandclick on Save Target As, then navigate to the folder in which you want to store the 9 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 9 8/15/08 25936 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension file. The actual sound file should download onto your computers hard drive, or to a flash memory stick if you so indicate. You can then play it off your computer, burn a CD, etc. The archive is searchable, so you can enter a term such as arte, comida, Peru, etc. , to help find material on to pics you are studying. BBC Mundo http//news. bbc. co. k/hi/spanish/news/ The site contains a wealth of text, multimedia, video, and audio materials, much of it organized by topic. Studio 834 provides interviews with speakers from all over the Spanish-speaking world, and many interviews include scripts. Use this resource to familiarize students with regional variations in accent. Radio nuevos horizontes http//www. nuevoshorizontes. org This site has a searchable archive of programs on a variety of culture, traditions, health, immigration, arts, literature, and personal finance topics. unloose downloads of audio only CDs available for purchase, with transcripts.Langmedia http//langmedia. fivecolleges. edu/collection/lm_spanish. html. Students can view short videos of native speaker interaction, from a variety ofcountries. Goodfornovicestudentsforcomprehensionandodeling,andfor comparing accents from a variety of countries. Uteach technique exercises http//www. laits. utexas. edu/spe/s iteindex. php Here students can view short videos of native speakers doing performance tasks on a variety of topics at the novice, intermediate, and advanced levels. Language Acquisitions Resource Center at San Diego State University http//larc. dsu. edu/voces. VideotapedinterviewswithwomenfromGuatemala and Mexico present students with a variety of spokespersons and experiences. The worksheet available at nflrc. hawaii. edu/voces provides a good example of showing evidence of engagement. Univision http//www. univision. com Enter videos in the Uniclave window and for a searchable collection of videos of one to eight minutes duration with news, entertainment, and more. Radio Caracol de Colombia http//www. caracol. com. co/ Has an audio archive link on the left-hand menu. 10 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 10 /15/08 25936 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Strategy 8 Get students to interview and record native speakers, and share their recordings with classmates. Across the c ountry, students in more and more communities today have the opportunity to use Spanish outside the classroom. Students can consider interviewing neighbors, parents co-workers, school personnel, etc. Handheld cassette recorders, microcassette recorders, digital voice recorders, certain mp3 players, computers, digital cameras, some phones, and iPods and other devices can be used to record voices.If your department can invest in even five digital voice recorders, you can lend them to students to do their interviews. Have your beginning students interview a native speaker, write a transcript of the conversation, and share the audio recording withclassmates. Keeptheinterviewssimpleatfirst,focusingonthetopicofthe current chapter or unit. For example, in a chapter on foods, the class can come up with a short questionnaire, for example ?Cualesunacomidatipicadetupais? ?Cualessonlosingredientes? ?Comoseprepara? ?Cualestucomidafavorita? Reflect with classmates on accents, regional vocabul ary, and other haracteristics and how they effect pronunciation. At the intermediate level, include in your planning learning the language needed to call to request the interview, set up an appointment, and write a thank-you letter in Spanish. See attachment F (p. 23) for sample materials for an interview project from a Level 2 unit about jobs. Strategy 9 Target component skills for listening. Focus your listening activities on component skills and strategies for listening. Here are some suggestions skill Discourse type task type gain familiarity with regional variations interviews with people from various countries (BBC Mundo Estudio 834)Mark a transcript where regional differences in pronunciation, vocabulary, verb forms, etc. , are evident. news and information check list activity recognize familiar vocabulary in the context of speech intended for native speakers Pesca las palabras 11 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 11 8/15/08 25936 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehensi on skill Discourse type task type recognizing cognates in the stream of speech news and information texts Prepare a cloze passage by eliminating cognates students listen and complete. The topic of health often has many cognates. Students listen and note as many cognates s they can. inferring social relationships from linguistic clues recorded interactions between native speakers such as those on the Langmedia Web site Note and discuss the linguistic clues. listening for main idea, detail news and information texts Prepare a T chart on the board, with Main idea and Supporting detail. Listen, and then ask what students understood. Have class decide where each piece of information should go. comprehending specific information news and information Complete charts, fill in blanks, write numbers heard, and answer prepared multiple-choice or open-ended questions. dvertisements Strategy 10 Create a culture of listening in your classroom. Tweak your classroom oral activities so they require students to listen actively to each other. For instance, expand your Think Pair Share activities to make them Think Pair Share Compare. Have students share what the partner said, not what the student reporting said. Then after hearing from several students, ask another student to compare. For example, on Monday morning, students think about what they did on the weekend, pair with a partner to say what they did, and report to the class what their partner did.After hearing four to six students activities, ask another person which two students had the most alike weekends or which two had the most different weekends, or what all the students had in common. This activity, in addition to providing evidence of listening comprehension, practices the comparison and synthesis skills so important to the formal essay and formal oral presentation tasks. Tune into the mp3 generation. Encourage students to include Spanish music on their digital music players, and seek out Spanish language podcasts.As technology allows, create your own podcasts of lessons, explanations, or poems you are studying, andencouragestudentstoputthemontheiriPods. GarageBand(forMac)and Audacity (a free download for PCs) allow you to make your own audio programs. pull down ifyouhaventlearnedthetoolsyet,manyofyourstudentshave. Getthemtoshow you, and start listening 12 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 12 8/15/08 25936 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Attachment A Provide evidence of engagement Fill in a chart Listening source University of Texas Spanish Proficiency Exercises http//www. laits. utexas. edu/spe/beg06. tml PreparacionConunapareja,escribeunalistadetrabajos,oficiosyprofesiones en espanol. Ahoraescuchaalasseispersonashablardeltrabajodesuspadreso parientes. Usatuboligrafoparaanotarlosqueescuchas. nombre lo que hace el padre lo que hace la madre Ejemplo simplificado Nativo hablante Beatriz Luna Torres Alejandro Ernesto Madgits Regina Ruiz female horse Angeles Fernandez Fern ando Camacho Apuntes para MI presenacion oral Hablacontucompanero. UsatuboligrafoVERDEparaanandirinformacion queescuchotucompanero. Escuchaotravezparaverificartutrabajo. AplicacionEscribelostrabajosdedospersonasqueTUconoces.Luego describe sus trabajos oralmente (graba la descripcion para tu portafolio). 13 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 13 8/15/08 25936 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension mi nombre lo que hace lo que hace Attachment B Sample Checklist activity based on the Radio United Nations news piece Lluvias en Costa Rica. TranscripcionreportedeRadioNacionesUnidas,19deoctubrede2007. http//www. un. org/radio/es/detail/6528. html Nombre Fecha A. Preparacion.? Quetiempohaceaquihoy? B. Escucha. UsatuboligrafoAZULymarcaconunapalomita(v)azullas palabras que escuchas. C. Lee tus palabras a tu companero.Escucha las palabras de tu companero. Marcasuspalabrasconunapalomita(v)verde. Palabra Yo escuche v mi companero escucho v en verde leimos en el texto sol calor lluvias nieve dias anos nacion aguas mas menos ayuda rios 14 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 14 8/15/08 25937 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Palabra Yo escuche v mi companero escucho v en verde leimos en el texto institucion agencias comunicacion necesidades emergencia D. Anota numeros que escuchaste en el reporte. E. Anota5palabrasqueescuchastequeNOestanenlalista. F. Leelatrascripciondelprograma. Marcaenlaultimacolumnalaspalabrasque estanenelpasaje. G. APLICACIONComparaeltiempoenCostaRicaconeltiempoaqui. Engagement Independent listening Cooperative listening Application 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 15 8/15/08 25937 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension Lluvias en Costa Rica Dejan 18 Muertos T ranscript for Checklist Activity Reporte de Radio Naciones Unidas, 19 octubre de 2007. http//www. un. org/radio/es/ detail/6528. html r eal Descargar imPrimir LaslluviastorrencialesdelosultimosdiasenCosta Rica,handejado18muertosycuantiosa sperdidas materiales. El Coordinador Residente del Sistema de la ONU enesanacion,JoseManuelHermidas,describiolos fectos adversos que han tenido las aguas sobre el territorio costarricense. Hanhabidoinundacionesseverasenvariaspartesdelpais. Todoellitoraldel PacificoestaafectadoytambienenelValleCentral. Delos81cantonesenCostaRica, 65 se han visto afectados. Los danos provocados en las cosechas y las redes viales han sido estimados de manerapreliminar,enmasde70millonesdedolares. SegunelRepresentantedel PNUD, las agencias de la ONU en Costa Rice se encuentran listas para ofrecer la ayuda que pueda requerirse. Hemosestadoenestrechacomunicacionconelentenacionalresponsablepara atenderlasemergencias,queeslaComisionNacionaldeEmergencias.Hemosidoa unareunionconellos,ademasdelascomunicacionescontinuasportelefonoy noshan dadounalistadelasnecesidadesmasurgentes. HemosinformadoaOCHAconuna solicitud, de parte del coordinador residente, para poder acceder a fondos para poder, entre otras cosas, co mprar algunos de los requerimientos mas urgentes que segun la comisionnacionaldeemergenciasoncamillasymantas. El representante de la ONU en Costa Rica, dijo que las necesidades de alimentos delosdamnificados,estansiendoresueltasporelgobiernoycompaniasprivadas. Attachment B Teachers Notes ObjectiveIdentify familiar vocabulary in the stream of authentic speech. PrelisteningAskstudents? Quetiempohacehoy Lluevemuchoaqui? Discuss a bit about weather, at students level. Then pass out paper, and have students write about todays weather. 16 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 16 8/15/08 25937 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Listening Instructstudentstolistencarefully,andCHECKinBLUEorBLACKpen,any words on the list that they hear. Ask if they want to listen again, and repeat. Pair students and tell students to read the words they checked. Tell partners to useaGREENPENtocheckthewordstheirpartnerheard.DO NOT let them look at each others papers. This is the cooperative listening partthe y listen to their partners answers and record. They should check all words the partner heard, even if they think the word wasnt there. Then tell them they will listen again, and they should check to see if this time they hear words they didnt last time. These should be circled in green pen. Post-listening Pass out the transcript so students can read and see which words in fact were there. Application Even beginning students can make a basic comparison with words like tambien, pero, mas, and menos.Students staple their paper to their partners paper and pass both in. You score on the rubric in Attachment E, which includes Engagement (followed directions and completed all listening tasks), Independent listening (how accurate student was on the first listening, indicated by checks in blue or black ink), Cooperative listening (includes the green checks, which generally correspond to partners paper and circled words, showing the ability to recognize the words once alerted to their presenc e), and Application (the post-listening Reflections task). 17 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 17 /15/08 25937 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension Attachment C Generic Listening Task ?Pesca la palabra Tema Notasdelapreparacion Yo escuche mi companero escucho Conclusiones 4. clearly meets expectations 3. meets basic expectations 2. approaching expectations 1. Does not meet expectations Engagement Independent listening Cooperative listening Application 18 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 18 8/15/08 25937 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Attachment C Pesca la Palabra Lesson Guide Long-term goals (claims) Recognizefamiliarvocabularyinthestreamofspeech. Comprehendspeechintendedfornativespeakers. Specific objective Recognizedfamiliarvocabularyandcognateswhenheardinthestreamof speech in authentic sources. Level Novice(Spanish1and2) Teacher preparation Find an authentic listening passage relating to a current chapter theme or topic. Prepare the link on your comput er, or download the file. Select a one- to twominute chunk of the program to focus on, noting the time marker in your media player for easy access. Select chunks with a good variety of words students have studied, as well as cognates. Photocopy the generic ?Pesca la Palabra passing, filling out the theme and pre- and postlistening tasks prior to photocopying the form, if you wish. at one time students are familiar with the procedure, they can create their own forms on notebook paper. Classroom procedures Prelistening Chose an appropriate selection of prelistening strategies Readthetheme/titleofthepresentationandaskforpredictionsaboutthe program. Showaphotoorobjectrelatedtothetopicanddescribeit. Predictcontent. Brainstormknownvocabulary. Offertopreteachfivevocabularywordstheydontknowbutthinktheyll need to understand the program.You could get the class to make a list of 10 words, then pick only 5 to translate for them. Hacerpredicciones-? Quevanaescuchar? 19 08-1442. AP. SF. S panish. indd 19 8/15/08 25938 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension UsetheNotasdelapreparacionforstudentstoshowevidenceofengagement in the pre-listening activity. Instruct them to write a description of the picture, or list the vocabulary the class brainstormed, or write their predictions of what will be in the passage. Listening Students listen and jot down words they comprehend in column 1 they can listen twice if they wish.Pairing Pair students. Students take turns reading words from their list. Ifyourpartnersaysawordthatisalreadyonyourlist,putacheckbyit. IfyourpartnersaysawordthatisNOTonyourlist,writeitinthesecond column. IfyourpartnersaysawordthatISonyourlist,putacheckbytheword,in the second column. Listen again If you hear a word your partner said, put a check by it in the first column. Postlistening The generic form has a place for conclusions. Depending on the difficulty of the passage and the level of the students, create a finish task. SummarizeinEnglish( orSpanish) Personalize(e. . ,Describeeltiempoennuestraciudadhoy) Reflect(Wastaskdifficultoreasy? Why? Observationsontheaccentof speaker, etc. ) Evaluation Use the rubric in Attachment E. 20 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 20 8/15/08 25938 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Attachment D GenericlisteningactivityforNewsProgram. Forexample,usewith Univision. com video segments. Noticias de la semana Antes de escuchar Fecha Fuente Pais Titular ?Quesabessobreeltema? Apuntes ?Quien? ?Que? ?Cuando? ?Donde? ?Como? Resumen/comparacion/personalizacion/opinion 21 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 21 /15/08 25938 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension Attachment E Formative Listening Comprehension Rubric, evaluating the listening process Have Pairs staPle text file togetHer anD turn in. graDe on tHe ruBric. 4 . clearly meets expectations 3. meets basic expectations 2. approaching expectations 1. not meeting expectations Written evidence and teacher musing provide evidence of full engagement throughout the listening activity. Notes and teacher observation show evidence of engagement attention may wander, at times. Notes and teacher observation show artial evidence of engagement off-task behavior or lack of attention detract from engagement. Notes and teacher observations show evidence of sporadic engagement in listening activities. Independent comprehension clearly meets expectations for level. * Provides some evidence of independent comprehension relies on classmates and total class discussion for some information. Provides runty evidence of independent comprehension relies heavily on partner work and class discussion for information. Prevents very little to no evidence of independent comprehension may start out to opy classmates work. Cooperative listening Shows clear evidence of sharing, listening, and note taking during pair interactions. Shows some evidence of sharing, listening, and note taking during pair interactions. Shows partial evidence of engagement in cooperative listening tasks. Contributes little to cooperative listening activities may be off task and may distract classmates. Application Creatively and accurately uses information from listening in concluding tasks. Uses information from listening to complete concluding tasks. Uses minimal information from listening n completing concluding tasks. Provides little evidence of listening in completing concluding tasks. Engagement Independent listening *Expectations vary by task and level. 16 100 10 70 15 95 9 65 14 90 8 60 13 85 7 55 12 80 6 50 11 75 22 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 22 8/15/08 25938 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Attachment F Interview Activity As designed, this activity is appropriate at a Level 2 or higher. Goals Usesimple,familiarphrasestocommunicatewithSpanishspeakersinthe community. Toobtainspeechsamplesfromavarietyofnativespeakersforin-class listening. TolearnaboutjobsthataredonebySpanish-speakingcommunity members. Tocomprehe ndavarietyofnativespeakervoicestalkingaboutafamiliar topic. Procedures Preparation Teachandpracticequestionsneededtogetinformationaboutanadult acquaintances job (see handout below). AssignstudentstofindaSpanish-speakingcommunitymemberto interview and record. Technology note Many students have digital cameras, digital video cameras, phones, microcassette players, laptops, iPods with the iTalk microphone, mp3 players with voice recording capability, or other technology for recording the conversations.Our department has purchased a limited number of Olympus digital voice recorders (at around $70 each), which are lent out to students for one night if they have no other means of recording the conversation. Students are given a week or two to get the interviews to allow for technical problems. The following Web site has information on Olympus digital voice recorders. http//www. olympusamerica. com/cpg_section/cpg_voicerecorders. asp Project Students record their interviews and transcri be them on the ENTREVISTA handout. 23 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 23 8/15/08 25938 PM Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension Sharing In class, students share their interviews. Classmates fill in the chart with details about each conversation they hear. Evaluation Based on completion of interview, accuracy of transcript, and note taking during the in-class sharing. Thanks to Lucinda Salinas, Alamo Heights High School Spanish 2 teacher, for sharing this activity. Used with permission. CreatedtouseinconjunctionwiththeHolttextbookExpresateLevel2. 24 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 24 8/15/08 25939 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies Mi entrevista con Ud. Clase, quiero presentarles a Ud? AquesededicaUd.? o? QueclasedetrabajorealizaUd.? El o Ella Ud.? Quetipodepreparacionsenecesitaparaestaprofesion? (Fui a I went to) El o Ella Ud.? Comoleayudaelespanolensutrabajoosuvida? El o Ella Ud.? Otra pregunta, UD. escoja. ? El o Ella 25 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 25 8/15/08 25939 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension i salinas alamo HeigHt HigH scHool 2007 nombre de su companero ?vecino, amigo de la familia,etc? el oficio Dime algo 26 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 26 8/15/08 25939 PM Pre-AP Listening Comprehension StrategiesAttachment G Lesson Guide GoalFamiliarizestudentswithregionalaccents. From level one, engage students in listening to diverse voices. 1. Preparation Copythescriptsforthreeinterviews. Suggestedsourceis BBCMundos Estudio 834 http//news. bbc. co. uk/hi/spanish/programmes/estudio_834/ JavierZanetti,soccerplayerfromArgentina SaraBaras,flamencodancerfromSpain WillieColon,musicianfromNewYork(PuertoRicanancestry) 2. Materials Photocopies of scripts highlighters. 3. Procedure Prelistening. a. Provide name, profession, and country. b. Ask for predictions about what students might hear. c.Students scan transcript to check on predictions, and find words they understand. Listening. Have students listen to each sample while following on their copy of the transcript. They should highlight any words or sounds that look different from what they are used to hearing. Compare impressions and listen again. 4. Debrief Avoid generalizations like in Spain, they speak like this, or Cubans pronounce it like this. There is a great deal of regional and personal variation within countries. Make comments and observations about the ways the students hear THIS particular speaker pronounced at this particular moment.The goal is to increase the students comfort with variations, not to teach the specific characteristics of specific regional accents. (That could well be a different lesson at another level). Students write one or two sentences about each speakers pronunciation, and how easy or difficult the speaker was to understand. 27 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 27 8/15/08 25939 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension 5. Evaluation Based principally on engagement as evidenced by notes taken on prelistenin g, highlighting on the transcript, postlistening conclusions, and teacher observation of participation in classroom discussion.Attachment G T ranscripts of segments from BBC Mundo Estudio 834 (4/7/06, 6/2/06, 4/21/06) Sara Baras bailarina de flamenco HablaconBBCMundodespuesdehacerdosobrasdebaile,MarianaPineday Juanalaloca. BBC ? Queaprendistedespuesdecasi,segunentiendo,800representaciones entrelasdos? Sara Baras Puessi,pasamoslasmil. Fueronmasdequinientas representacionesdecadauna,oseaqueaprendimuchisimo. Elhechodetrabajar al lado de directores tan importantes como Luis Pascual y Luis Olmos, ha sido algo que me ha llenado de cosas nuevas, de cosas de teatro, no solamente de baile.Yahoraescomosiapreciaramuchomasunquejido,ohacerdemimisma, porque el hecho de meterte en el personaje de alguien te va acostumbrando a expresarte siempre pensando en alguien. Cuando de repente no tienes nada que contar, sino simplemente bailar es algo muy diferente. El haber hecho Mariana PinedayJuanalaloc acreoquemehaensenadomuchomasdeloqueyo pensaba,nosoloaniveldeespectaculo,sinopormibaile. BBC Ydosmujeresexcepcionalesenesosdosespectaculos? Queesparati unamujerexcepcional Cualesserianlosatributosdeunamujerque,comotu, esexcepcionalenlosuyo? Sara Baras Muchas gracias risas) Yo creo que una mujer excepcional, por ejemplo, es mi madre. Creo que una buena persona, una persona con inquietudes,inteligente,generosa,unapersonaquedaalgomas,? no? Creoque sobre todo las madres me parecen mujeres excepcionales. El amor que puedan dar no lo comparo con nada. Willie Colonseconsiderauncreadordelasalsa. NacioenNuevaYork,nieto de puertorriquenos. Tengo entendido que el 2006 es el ano de tu retiro, que estaspensandoenguardardefinitivamentetutrombon. Queriapreguntartesi realmenteteretirasoseguirasenlastarimashastaqueelcuerpoaguante. 28 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 28 8/15/08 25939 PMPre-AP Listening Comprehension Strategies W. C. (Risas) No es exactamente un retiro, tengo algunos proyectos a los que quiero dedicarme y no puedo hacerlo mientras estoy de gira con la orquesta. Ahora estoy en el proceso de grabar un LP, puede ser mi ultimo y yo creo que me mantendriasiempreapegadoalamusica,laproduccionylacomposicion. Son cuarenta anos de viaje al final de este ano puede ser. BBC Muchosdicenquelaedaddeorodelasalsanovolverayqueinclusono faltamuchoparaquedesaparezcacomogenerorentableenelnegociodela musica. Comolovestu,? lasalsaestamuriendo,seestatransformando,esta cambiandoaotrogenero?Colon Bueno, esa es la ley natural, pero yo tengo confianza que algo viene, todoloviejoesnuevoydelonuevounosecansadespuesdeunrato. Yocreo queesunciclo,especialmentecuandolatecnologiahacambiado,quese puedegrabarunbuenLPenelsotanooenelgarajeconunacomputadora quenoestancara. Esovaapermitirquedenuevo,comoenmiepoca,surjan productores independientes porque uno de los problemas ha sido que las grandes corporacioneshanidoadquiriendotodoslossellos(discograficos)pequenos, entoncesmatanlacompetenciaytambienlahones tidadylarazondeserdela musica, una musica que nace de la esquina del barrio.En verdad no entienden la esenciayelporquelamusicaeratanrentableyestanimportante. Javier Zanetti juega futbol profesional en Italia, pero es de Argentina. El estableciounafundacionparaayudaraninospobresenArgentina. BBC ? QuesignificaPupi,dedondevieneesenombre? Javier Zanetti PupiesunsobrenombrequemepusieronLopezyCaballero cuandocomenceajugarfutbolenelclubargentinoBanfield. Despueslepusimos esenombrealafundacion. Hacecuatroanosquecomenzamosysinceramente hemoshechomuchisimascosaspararecaudarfondosparaestoschicospartidos a beneficio, calendarios, pulseritas con los colores de Argentina, etc.Todo esto para ellos, para seguir fomentando y haciendo crecer los proyectos que tenemos en mente. BBC Segun tenemos entendido son unos cien los ninos que reciben asistencia diariaenlafundacion Javier Zanetti Si,enestosmomentoshaymasdecienchicosdetresacinco anos los que nos estuvieron acompanando durante estos cuatro anos, ahora 29 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 29 8/15/08 25940 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension tienensiete,ocho-ademastrabajamosconloshermanosdeestoschicosycon lospadres. Queremosunpococerrarelcirculo,paraayudaratodaslafamiliaen lasdistintasproblematicasquesepuedenpresentar. BibliographyHumbach,J. ,Smith,S. ,andMadrigalVelasco,S. ,Expresate Spanish 2. Austin, TX Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2005. 30 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 30 8/15/08 25940 PM GeneralStrategiesforAP Spanish Listening Comprehension Brant Hadzima Newfound Regional High School Bristol, New Hampshire Introduction Teaching and assessing listening comprehension are perhaps the most challenging components of the AP curriculum, due in great part to the many variables that chance on a students ability to comprehend spoken Spanish the physical classroom environment and school equipment, learning styles, note-taking skills, regional dialects, etc.Many teachers may assume that they are assessing listening com prehension when in fact they are assessing listening and cognitive reasoning skills. Listening may be part of the exercise, but the required tasks of reasoning, critical thinkingeven the kinesthetic connection to writingare factors that can drastically affect the outcome. In essence, two of the major obstacles in unaccompanied assessing listening comprehension are first determining which factors may impede a true assessment of listening comprehension, and then making every effort to offer students the opportunity to mitigate these variables.This will help to provide a true baseline for students, and teachers will have a better understanding of whether they need to remediate listening or focus more on reasoning and critical thinking strategies. Teachers must know what students hear in order to then address how to analyze and synthesize the information presented orally. 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 31 8/15/08 25940 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension Eliminating Var iables Although it may appear to be obvious, there are several issues that the classroom teacher must evaluate and address prior to administering a listening comprehension assessment.First and foremost, it is imperative that students are provided with the best possible equipment and physical space for listening comprehension. If no language lab is available, a classroom should be optimized for a listening environment Students should be provided with headphones and a listening center, the room should be quiet, comfortable, and free from distractions such as PA announcements and hallway activity. (I can vividly fall an adept AP Spanish student who performed poorly on one of the practice listening comprehension assessments for no particular reason.I evaluated the listening comprehension segment, tried to determine if the regional accent was overwhelming, and even took the test myself. Exasperated, I finally asked the student why he did so poorly. His response I was notice the garbage transport picking up the dumpster outside the window. By simply drawing the blinds, his scores improved remarkably. ) Once the classroom space and physical environment has been evaluated and addressed, it is important to know and understand each students learning style. Most people tend to rely heavily on visual references in order to accessary auditory comprehension.An example might be how teachers themselves process information at a faculty meeting. If the principal states an outline and a deadline for a project with no visual reference whatsoever, it is more probable that the staff will misinterpret and/ or forget the information stated. Although we have developed coping skills such as taking notes and asking clarifying questions, it is more likely that the request will be taken seriously and acted on in a timely expressive style if it is written as well. Another example is when teachers are assigning homework.If teachers state what the homework will be without writing it on the board, there will inevitably be confusion for some (if not all) students. Of course there will be some who will diligently write down the assignment and ask a question if confused. Others, however, will remain silent and may not understand or remember the assignment. Therefore, one essential preassessment that should be done early in the school year is to have students determine their learning style. There are many assessments readily available, and one particularly detailed assessment is the index of Learning Styles (ILS) developed by Richard M.Felder and Barbara A. Soloman of North Carolina State University. The Web site address is www4. ncsu. edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/ public/ILSpage. html, and it provides a free, 44-question Web-based assessment for students to determine their learning styles. Students should use this information 32 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 32 8/15/08 25940 PM GeneralStrategiesforAP Spanish Listening Comprehension to better understand how they learn and process information, and teachers should discuss in the classroom how to best prepare for listening comprehension with the understanding that each student learns differently.Once the teacher and students understand their learning styles, the next step is to help auditory learners further hone and process their listening skills, and to provide the more visual learners with coping skills necessary to compensate for their provocation with being assessed for listening comprehension. A student who doesnt like listening comprehension and who performs poorly on these assessments may struggle due to personal learning styleand not due to Spanish language aptitude. We all have students who can read and write very well in Spanish, but who are not proficient in listening comprehension and/or speaking.It must be surmised that these students do not have a deficiency in Spanish, but rather in processing auditory information. Teaching more Spanish will not make them better listeners. On the contrary, teachers must make a conscious effort to help students develop coping skills and to help the students feel more at ease with the style of assessment. Pretesting Listening Comprehension After addressing physical space and learning style, it is important to give a comprehensive listening assessment in Spanish to obtain a baseline and to observe student test-taking strategies.It is best to utilize assessments that homunculus what will be tested on the AP Spanish Language Examination, and AP Spanishstyle listening comprehension assessments with resource kits are readily available for purchase and do quite well for student preparation. AP Central has audio files available and sample assessments as well for teacher use in the classroom. Regardless, teachers should pretest listening comprehension with short dialogues and narratives, and also medium-to-long narratives and dialogues. I recommend giving students an overview of how they will be pretested, and to recommend that students take notes when necessary.During the actual pretest it is a good idea to observe student behavior. Perhaps more valuable than the data from the pretest is the observation of student test-taking skillsi. e. ,whichstudentstookthoroughnotesandwhichonesjustlistened? What didthenoteslooklikeweretherelists,graphicorganizers,andothervisualaides? Whichstudentswereeasilydistractedand/orwereunabletofocus? Didstudents simply look for words written in the multiple-choice answers that were said in the dialogue (word recognition), or did they first interpret the information and then use processofeliminationtoselectthebestpossibleanswer? 3 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 33 8/15/08 25940 PM s Pecial focus Teaching Listening Comprehension Most likely, the students who performed the best in the assessment were the ones who were taking notes, who were focused, and who backbreaking on understanding and interpreting the information instead of just attempting to recognize words that matched the ones in the answers provided. Obviously, basic proficiency in Spanish is essential, and a student who does not have the proper skill base from prior classes will be at a complete loss.However, assuming that students have had the proper prior training (for more information, please refer to the AP Vertical Teams and Pre-AP publications on the AP Web site), the issue at hand will be to teach students to be better listeners. Teaching Listening Skills Once a baseline for listening comprehension has been established, the task of honing listening skills and forming coping mechanisms begins. The first step is to help students create their own system for listening.I have found it very helpful to model good test-taking skills as a way to broach the topic of how to tackle the listening component. After the students take the initial pretest in listening comprehension, I take the test myself in front of the class. I copy the answer key onto an overhead transparency, and we play the test out lou d. As the dialogues are played, I take notes on the overhead or the board, and create links and graphic organizers. I then model the answer selection on the overhead using the process of elimination, and explaining why certain answers are wrong while referring to my notes.Often students will start to discuss the suasion process, and it becomes an interactive class where students generate ideas and discuss what they did for that particular dialogue or narrative. At times students will volunteer to direct the next dialogue, and I allow them to model their thought process for the class. The essential component to that particular lesson is that students see how to process information that is presented verbally, that they observe and evaluate techniques that worked (and didnt work). At that point, they should begin to develop a routine for listening comprehension that works for them.I finish the lesson by having students tell me what they intend to do differently next time to perform be tter. For the next listening comprehension activity I eliminate the variable of the multiple-choice questions. This gives students the opportunity to focus directly on the dialogue or narrative and to employ their personal listening strategies. The class begins by brainstorming various note-taking techniques. Next, students are asked to listen to a 10-minute narrative and to take notes on the essential information.When the narrative ends, students are allotted 15 minutes to summarize the narrative in 34 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 34 8/15/08 25940 PM GeneralStrategiesforAP Spanish Listening Comprehension their own words (in Spanish). We then read our summaries out loud, and by sharing we realize what may have been missed, what was truly essential, and what impeded our understanding. Students should begin to realize that deficiencies in vocabulary, perhaps dialects, the rate and speed of the speaker, and background information may be impediments for comprehension. PracticeWhen stu dents understand the impediments to comprehending a dialogue or narrative, the task then becomes practicing, and learning by trial and error. Unlike writing or grammar, there is a limit to skills that can be taught for simply listening. Essentially, once distractions have been eliminated, the format of the assessment is familiar, and note-taking skills have been instructed and reviewed, the only way to improve is through continual practice. Practicing listening comprehension should be frequent, varied, authentic, and routine in order to truly prepare students for the examination.In reality, there should never be an AP Spanish Language class where listening is not an integral component of the class itself. It is important to note that not all listening activities have to be assessed formally, but it is important that they be assessed in a variety of ways. Visual Versus Nonvisual Although there are many ways to present listening, it is best to separate listening comprehension activiti es into two categories those with a visual aid and those without.The listening activities that allow for a visual reference may be easier for many students, as they provide a frame of reference and therefore some level of comfort. Using segments from Spanish television, a podcast, or watching a PowerPoint presentation can function as a less threatening form of integrating listening into the daily classes. It is vital to ensure that these activities be varied so that students do not get too accustomed to a particular dialect or vocabulary base.If utilizing segments of Spanish television is part of the class routine, make sure to access different programs and channels whenever possible. Have students prelisten by presenting the title or some background on the segment, and discuss what they could expect to hear. Most importantly, however, assess what they have heard. Assessments can range from a quick student synopsis to a formative written assessment to a class discussion. The assessm ent piece is essential nevertheless, and 35 08-1442. AP. SF. Spanish. indd 35 8/15/08 25940 PM