Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Theories and Concepts in Leadership and concern - Essay ExampleA leader lactate takes responsibility and guides the staff in accordance to the nurse ethics. A nurse leader identifies the strength of other staff members and utilizes to create an effective model (Kelly, 2012). perplexity on the other hand is an elective or appointed position. A coach works ground on goals set by an entity, a successful manager is one who per innings according to expectation (Kelly, 2012). attention in this case is authoritative. Consultations are done on a horizontal basis. A manager defers form a leader in the manner in which decisions is arrived at. A manager works with an drive of astir(p) the quality and output enchantment leader works on the negatives and work on them to ensure an let working environment is created (Marquis & Huston, 2014).In some cases the two functions may overlap. In this case an authoritative manager may have the traits that qualify him as a leader. The manager works with the available staff while leaders work on their negative and motivate them towards better performance. He ensures the external and internal environments are functional and are effective to ensure quality performance (AANAC, 2013). In this case policy devising and execution are enjoined as a single function. This would imply that the two functions overlap. An effective nurse should aim at ensuring the overlap created by these two functions is harmonized and effective system
Monday, April 29, 2019
War or Immigration - evidence ExampleThe dialogue may not necessarily be only between the two parties. each(prenominal) party may bring one or more parties in its support from its side to admit dialogue with the opposite group of parties. If the dispute gets resolved through the dialogue, nothing like that War breaks step up in the other case.During the war, if any of the party surrenders, the other party should stop the killing right away. later on the war, the winning party may confiscate the belongings of the losing party along with the fighters, but the fighters should not be tortured in jails like the conventional practice is. Instead, they should be treated with kindness and should be make to contribute to the winning nation positively. It is better to have them teach the illiterate local prisoners rather than distortion them, which would yield no good. If treated nicely, the winning party assumes great tendency to convince the prisoners to have credit in the winning par ty and rather become its members than their original
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Research Methodology - date ExampleThe ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current publications on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as the justification for future research in the body politic. Therefore the encyclopedia argues that a good literature re scene is characterized by a logical go of estimates current and relevant references with consistent, appropriate referencing style proper use of terminology and an unbiased and comprehensive view of the previous research on the topic.According to Cooper (Guide For Literature Reviewy,1988) a literature review uses as its database reports of primary or original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarship itself. The primary reports apply in the literature may be verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports atomic number 18 write documents. The types of scholarship may be empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological in nature. Second a literature review seeks to describe summaries, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of primary reports.Introduction The common idea regarding my dissertation compilation is the collection of data, their comparative study, rationality of the forwarded arguments, and a broader analysis of the facts in empirical evidences via the scientific investigation. This Research Methodology also refers to the hypothetical assumptions that underlie a particular study in the area of respiratory care with a special reference to teenagers presented in APA style within generally agreeable epistemological views. The project work, apart from stylistic and evident aspects it would be methodologically diverse using only when qualitative methods. An attempt result seriously follow to match the methods and the approach in finding taboo the solutions while addressing the issues.Validity In order to answer the research questions keeping the purpose of the study intact, a serious attempt has been designated for a methodic al approach considering the validity of the derived information. Only up to date findings are under consideration that is relevant to current practices and are active in clinical decision making. altogether the findings in the intensive reading avoid every kind of plagiarism. History Despite the fact on that point could be new guidelines there would be no chance of alteration of research groundings. My study will find out both medical approach and other value base prevention of asthma among the adolescents in managing the adherence. Adequate empirical evidences will be collected so that no conclusion some(prenominal) threat to the validity of their publication. Target Population Being my proposed work a literature review it involves abundant reading to compare, collate and reach into solid conclusion. My project would be structured as the following spirit by step presentation while finding out facts of the adolescents that are victimized of asthmatic affection from the minute reading of factual reports.Generalisability The objective of my research would be to find out the situations that lead the sufferings and their viable remedies recommended by the experts in
Saturday, April 27, 2019
merchandising research - Essay Example?11 Marketing Research Project Coffee Shops A master copy Usage and Attitude Study Introduction Coffee bewrays atomic number 18 commonly outlined as establishments that in the main serve prep ard coffee along with light snacks. From a cultural point of view, coffee shops serves as centres of social interaction where individuals especially youths are provided with a place to congregate, talk, read, write, entertain one another. As defined by Mintel (2009), coffee shops are shops where coffee is the primary sales item. They are based on the European and North American coffee shop models, typified by Starbucks, Costa Coffee, Cafe Nero and Coffee Republic and flip a wide variety and different types of coffee, e.g. cappuccino, latte, mocha, etc. Other items are usually on sale, much(prenominal) as pastries, tea, coffee beans, etc. However, the food offer may be restricted. Further, the operational venues of these coffee shops are also of relev ance Coffee shops include venues such as individual stores, kiosks and concessions. These may operate in a number of locations motorway service areas (MSAs), health clubs and hospitals, for example. However, they must be independent of the facility they are located in. (Mintel, 2009) This paper in short addresses the report of a pilot study on the usage and billet of coffee consumers, especially young consumers. The data collection for the survey report has mainly been conducted in fine-looking coffee shop brand names such as Starbucks and Costa Coffee from the localities of London. The data was serene from 20 young people aged 18 and above, along with a well-structured questionnaire designed on the terra firma of the usage and attitude of the young coffee consumers. Moreover, the paper looks into the broader picture of coffee shops market in the UK. It briefly provides the current scenario of the UK coffee shops market, which is now considered a booming market contributing rem arkably to the UK economy. While aspiration is getting tougher, the usage and attitude of the young coffee consumers are becoming significantly essential for the coffee shops in order to accomplish competitive advantage. Methodology Coffee shops are developing faster and wider, convey to the novel process of globalisation. With the level of market competition growing fast, there is also a growing need of more variables to be include in the market analysis of coffee shops. The study included in this paper is a pilot survey designed to test the questionnaire and the survey approach and to disclose some exploratory information which may be of interest to marketing decision makers. The survey conducted for the conclusion comprised of 20 young people (aged 18 and above) and students, to be administered by respondent self-completion. In order to let off the behavioural and attitudinal information of the young consumers of coffee shops, the survey has collected data from both males a nd females, and coffee shop users and non-users as well. Research objectives
Friday, April 26, 2019
Operatons management - Essay ExampleMoreover, the advancement of the information technology is another important supplement for logistic management. With the used of the advance IT system, operators can track the flow of materials from the point of purchasing inputs for productions to the point sinless products are sold in the retail stores. This gives enough data for logistics managers to make a wise conclusion for the overall business operations. Lastly, the principles and value chain are also discussed. The principles of logistic management give pointers for managers to do them gauge the correctness and effectiveness of their decision making.Transport and logistics, according to the report written by Shepherd, is a sector in which global value chain (GVCs) play a vital situation in connecting countries. It is also responsible for spreading technologies. It also promotes best practice with all the countries in the military personnel. Major shipping, incumbrance forwarding, e xpress delivery firms are just a few of the notable firms involved with this sector. Not but big and notable firms transport and logistics also partners with local operators. It does not focus on first valet countries alone as it extends hands to low income countries or commonly known as the third world countries to overhaul boost their flow of goods, information and other valuable resources. In addition to its vital role as a global value chains, this sector also helps improve the trade performance of umpteen countries around the world.For example, in order for manufacturing and agricultural industries to deliver their produce or goods to consumers quickly and reliably, they need the help of the transport and logistics sectors. A banana plantation industry depends on transports and logistics sectors to ship tons of harvested bananas to different countries. Without a cost-effective model of delivering these
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Discourse community analysis - endeavor ExampleOther than the policies established to guide the communities, they are set upon conventionalities depending on the identity of an individual. The discourse communities in question for discussion include engineering association affiliates (forming the professional entity), IT and socializing fashion in a higher learning institution (constituting the personal discourse community) and financial capacity building agency in a banking institute (constituting the academician discourse community). Discourse community analysis is significant in a myriad of ways. For instance, it helps in the development of knowledge by the members of the given discourse community makes it possible to look into to various conventions of life that may be a communal concern. In these regards, virtuoso is capable of ontogeny mastery of a given field. In a nutshell, discourse community is a socializing agency (Pogner, 2-3).This is an academic discourse community whose mandate is to incorporate the capacity building program for the banking sector. Its operations deviate from building up individual banking institutions as well as incorporating a corporate approach to the various institutions. This is a situation that involves two communities. The first one is the professional community where we have bankers, and the other is an academic community. Due to the heterogeneity in operations of the information system of the two cooperating banking institutions, the academic community sets in to narrow this bridge so that the two different departments from the two banks are harmonized. In the event, information is divided up between the two banks alongside the banking capacity building institute. This is representative of a discourse community since one of its conceptions is in information dissemination. It is thus evident that from the two banks, technicians in the IT department are taken through a capacity building process that helps in the rea ffirmation of cooperation amongst the two
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Class-Action courting against University Royal Beauty Pageants - Term Paper ExampleThese tilts gravel always been the source of great fear and r bely without controversy, leading star to question whether these competitions ar ethical, and whether it is fair on the churlren who participate in them. Our inviolable believes that while they may be carried out with the best of motivation, their execution is one that is terribly flawed, and could be greatly detrimental to the well being of these pip-squeakren in the future, accompanied by the severe lack of laws governing the commonwealth and regulation of beauty pageants (Nussbaum, 2008) thus feel that legal action must be taken against the child beauty pageant industry.While it may be true that some of those contestants ar on that point of their knowledge accord and are indeed old enough to make that decisions, for example those that compete in the division for 8 to ten year old children, it leads one to question what the sense is in having a competition that has contestants under the age of two. Surely they have no desire to be made up and togged up up, put into costumes and props, and taken out before a room full of cheering and shouting people. Babies at that age hardly appreciate getting dressed after a bath, it is unreasonable to expect one to believe that they would appreciate being adorned in ruffles and sequins and enduring extensive hours of make up, when they are at an age where they hardly have developed eyelashes or eyebrows. Furthermore, even if those missys who are in the older category of the competition, eight to ten year olds, which is still young by any stretch of the imagination, are there of their own accord as many representatives of this industry remark, it leads one to question whether firstly, they are conditioned into wanting(p) that, and secondly, whether it is fair to allow them to do it in any case. When a child has been raised with the idea that they are beautiful and they will non only be appreciated for that beauty, but rewarded for it, as long as they allow someone to sit them on a pedestal and extensively observe them, how is a child expected to work out for themselves that it is wrong to be judged and rewarded on the basis of outward appearance? Those that debate over the fact that there are talent rounds and other judging criteria, what they dont realize is that even move and singing is a talent based on showcasing oneself, and ultimately makes the competition one that is based on outward superficial criteria of appearances. When a child learns that how they look is an easy ticket to getting recognition, they do not develop the understanding of how it is what is inside, intellect and compassion that is what should be focused on and developed. Every little girl wants make up and clothes, but it is the job of the parents to teach children that they do not need to rely on make up or glitter to appear beautiful, and that being the center of attention does not ineluctably warrant one to be the best, nor should that be the criteria that they judge, or allow themselves to be judged on. In addition to these extreme problems with the concept of a beauty pageant, our firms finds there to be many contradictions with the statements the child pageant industry puts out. Standards have risen so high in recent years, with the advent of greater stakes and higher levels of competition, that girls are having to rely more on more on fake beauty enhancers, rather than their own graphic beauty. Fake spray tans, fake eyelashes, fake hair extension, even fake teeth, and all this on children who are at most nine or ten, and at their youngest, one or two, what sort of a content does that send to these children. Not only does
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
international investment law and international trade law - Coursework instanceThis research will begin with the statement that account of Foreign Investment and human being(prenominal) Trade Laws requires a thorough analysis of the global trade scenario that involves cross-border trades in goods and run, capital mobility, expropriation of property rights in host countries, childbed standards and mobility, outside(a) monetary stability, and economic development. The positive effects of International Trade and foreign investment on economic growth as first pointed out by Smith are becoming to a greater extent delicate due to lack of or inefficient conflict resolution mechanism at International forum and poor adaptability and assimilation of International legal principles in legal frameworks of host countries. Today, with the increasing globalisation of world economy, International trade and foreign direct investment give way grown dramatically. This has made Foreign investm ent law and International trade law more important as the subject of study and as a viable solution to counter the negative impacts of free trade regime. A triple-crown implementation of International trade laws generally depends upon the Foreign Investment Laws of different countries, as in most instances different countries frame their foreign investment laws in such a way that is against the principle of International Trade Laws. Though the purpose of such protectionist foreign investment laws is often to protect local trade, it results in a closed economy and deprives countries of opportunities of better growth prospects.... Until very recently, most scholars have opined that FDI is likely to be directed to sectors characterized by one or more of three features (i) capital and/or knowledge intensity, (ii) harvesting differentiation and (iii) th provision of services which are supportive of othr kinds of FDI, are information intensive, or are branded in some way or anothr. For much of th post-war period, th growth of FDI has been operose in thse sectors - notably oil, autos, electronics nd electrical equipment, office machinery, pharmaceuticals, packaged foods, banking nd finance, business consultancies nd trade-related services nd, indeed, until th late 1999s, th share of th global sales of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in thse sectors accounted for by thir foreign affiliates continued to rise. It is, thus, understandable that countries which display dynamic comparative advantage in those activities are those which have recorded th largest rise in their inbound FDI (Kuemmerle, 2006). 2.2 Significance of trade nd investment to world economic growthOver the past 5 years, there have been several significant changes in th geographical distribution of FDI, both within developed nd developing countries, nd amidst them. It is worth noting that there are some leading developed nd developing economies which did not detect as much FDI as one might have expe cted. Japan is the most obvious spokesperson as Porter (2000), it accounted for only 0.6% inflows into th developed countries in 1975-80 and 1.0% in 2000-2004. Of th larger European countries, Italy received only one-quarter th share of France in both periods, while some of th more populated bare-assedly industrial countries of Asia like Korea, Taiwan nd th Philippines, attracted only modest (though increasing) amounts of new
LPN to RN transition - Essay ExampleLPNs perform the use of goods and services of providing the basic nursing care to their patients. This mainly involves monitor of patients health, providing basic care like inserting catheters or changing bandages etc., and discussing and reporting patients health concerns to RNs or doctors. RNs on the other(a) hand perform enhanced functions like recording patients symptoms and medical histories, setting up care plans for patients, assistance in performing diagnostic tests and administering medications and educating patients and their families. Additionally, they have the responsibility to arrange consultations with doctors and also with professionals of other disciplines in a given health care setup.The transition from the role of LPN to RN demands that a better understanding of the family as unit is developed. With the improvement in health care delivery services, the role of family in the overall process of care continues to play a critical r ole (Duncan & DePew, 2011). A registered fellate is therefore expected to take into account the function of the family to get an insight into the health status of her patient.Since the concenter of job shifts from mere reporting to analysis of clinical situations, the professional role of RN is attributed to the development of more than enhanced analytical skills. The habit of thinking critically, to derive useful results from clinical information is essential, if the role of a RN is to be performed effectively.It should be understood that transition is divided into three distinct phases force outings, neutral order and beginnings (Harrington & Terry, 2009). For a transition to begin, it is essential that the connection with a previously ongoing process be brought to an end this may equate to separation from a previously established social condition, losing older identity, disenchantment and disorientation. This follows a condition when the person in transition is in limbo this allows renewal and
Monday, April 22, 2019
Doing Business in Russia - Research Proposal ExampleSoviet-era management practices, a decaying infrastructure, and inefficient supply systems hinder efficient drill of those resources. For nearly sixty years, the Russian economy and that of the rest of the Soviet Union operated on the basis of aboriginal planning meaning state control everywhere virtually all means of production and over investment, production, and consumption decisions throughout the economy. Economic policy was made according to directives from the Communist Party, which controlled all aspects of economic activity. The interchange planning system left a number of legacies with which the Russian economy must deal in its transition to a market economy. The constant changes in the patronage environment can make business activities hard to plan for managers.Taxes in Russia are high but some reforms are implemented in order to reduce the amount of valuatees paid by companies. During recent years, the government h as put emphasis on reducing regulation and lowering taxes. Depending on the companys location, the tax can vary. The thorough tax code has recently been implemented including a cutting VAT law and a new mesh tax law. The VAT is quite similar to the EU model however, input VAT is only recoverable when paid whereas output VAT can be accrued on a cash or accrual basis. The government actions regarding the VAT are mixed. On one hand, the Russian government decided not to apply VAT on certain actions (i.e. inter-company loans or derivatives transactions), but on the separate hand, some other fields that were not concerned by VAT are now subject to it (i.e. transfer of patents, trademarks, copyrights). The new Profits tax law is lowering the tax rate to a maximum of 24 % and decreased the number of non-deductible expenses.
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Assignment - adjudicate ExampleWhenever a comp whatsoever starts the main operation in a particular region the initially grow steadily and then exponentially. However after a certain phase the company enters a stagnant phase, during this phase many companies realize the importance of approaching other geographical markets for growth. When the planetary ceding back had hit the US and Europe market many companies predominantly operating in those geographical scene of action realized the importance of taking their products to growing market. The BRIC countries namely Brazil, Russia, India and China, have been recognized by many companies as markets which have lot of potential. Many of these countries have a substantial population of growing middle and speeding middle class people. The increase in disposal income per family has made these countries, a lucrative target for many. In profession globalisation denotes more market share, growth and profit making. The farther is the reac h of a business the more customers and revenue it is bound to achieve (Tandon, p.29). Technology has been an important element in facilitating the globalisation. Technological advances in Information Technology have helped companies to operate their global operations more efficiently. A company that has to slew up an operation in a foreign geographical region has to initially relocate their strategic team to establish themselves in the foreign market. ... IT also en ables these companies to operate globally by enabling them to care their clients from distant location. IT companies themselves are biggest advocate of globalisation. Most IT companies work for businesses in various geographical areas growing their mesh globally. Technological development and advances have indeed made the world a smaller place. These technological advances set about it possible for operations situated miles apart interact with each other have formal meetings inside few minutes without physically relo cating. Technological advancement in transportation also has made global operations easier for companies. Travelling from a location to another also has become easier for the managers. whizz manger is able to handle several geographical areas receivable to these technological advancements. Technology also helps in keeping the operations located in various locations have a common identity. One of the main aspects of globalisation has been to utlise the resources guardedly and efficiently. Each geographical market has a unique resource quotient that gives a comparative advantage to that market. The companies distort using these resources in such a way that maximum profit can be harnessed, this makes globalisation a rewarding option for companies also. Globalisation also enables consumers with the power to choose. The consumers are given wider option due to globalisation are in a position to demand better and efficient service (Ramos, p.1-30). One of the most complicated issues for companies opting for globalisation is planning resource management. Resource management is the back bone for any company. The operations will operate according to the plan only if the human resource planning is through with(p) in an intelligent way. Right person for the right
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Strategic Planning - Dissertation ExampleIntroduction Strategic readying at heart organizations is atomic number 53 of the most essential aspects of both susta softness and growth. Without the ability to meet the needs of strategic prep, there is the inability to behave forward with specific needs and to snuff it the full potential of the organization. While strategic planning is inevitable for the development of a company, the implementation and the end goals be often not met. The problems which arise are found on the sundry(a) aspects of the organization and how it associates with the needs of each of the goals. Leadership capacities, communication tools, participation and the ability to reach smaller and larger goals through various initiatives are some of the several areas in which strategic planning is not implemented in the correct manner. This is followed with complexities which arise from the organizational culture and the expectations which are associated with meet ing castrate or resistance to the workforce that is a part of the organization (Rothwell, 2010). ... The research will also determine specific areas in which strategic planning can alter, specifically with associations such as getting more employees available for participation, building milest angiotensin-converting enzymes and metrics to incorporate the strategic plans with and altering the approaches toward the vision so it becomes tangible within the company. By investigating how these can be used, there is the ability to create and develop more alternatives with the necessary strategic plans and how these can alter into a form of action. Problem Statement While strategic plans are developed within corporations, they are often not implemented and end goals are not met. literary works Review (ADD 10 PAGES TO THIS LIT REVIEW SECTIONOFTHE PAPER) The approach which is taken toward strategic planning and implementation is one which is based on the understanding of taking action w ithin a corporation. Without the correct strategies, there is the inability to provide higher amounts of sustainability and growth within a company. However, there are often problems and difficulties with creating the required changes. This publications review will examine the various aspects of strategic planning and implementation as well as how it alters according to the difficulties which are in the organizational culture. The review will examine the various dimensions that are associated with strategic planning. It will further define the obstacles that do not allow the plans to be implemented at various levels within an organization. There will also be reference to theories which are created to alter the strategic planning so it becomes one that is associated with constructive
Friday, April 19, 2019
LEADERSHIP STYLES - Essay ExampleOver the period of time, the nature and orientation of the introduceers therefore has changed and increasing body of research is suggesting interesting aspects about leadershiphip. The leadership way of lifes butt end vary and play upon the ability of the leader to lead the organization and followers in a particular manner.From the perspective of breast feeding leadership can be important as it outlines the way as to how one will lead as the career progress takes place over the period of time. It is therefore important for nurses to clearly go out the difference between management and leadership besides understanding disparate leadership styles. This understanding is exact because it directly have an impact on the performance.This paper will discuss and explore two different leadership styles and how that leadership style or leader fits in my philosophy of leader. A comparison and direct contrast will in addition be made between leadership and management.Transformational leadership is considered as the leadership which can bring in positive change within individuals to achieve certain objectives. This type of leadership style is often considered as one the most important ways to actually convert followers into leaders by systematically transforming the way they approach different aspects of the organizational environment or their career.By redesigning the value and belief systems, this approach towards leadership creates strong changes within the followers and therefore makes some important changes in the way they approach different aspects of their life and organization. It is also important to note that a transformational leader is also a moral example for the followers. As such leaders become like role models for modify the moral standing of the followers too. (Roesner, 1990)Another style of leadership is based upon the notion of servant leadership which is based upon the idea of giving preference to
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Impact of Dermatology Conditions - Essay ExampleIts presentation ranges from open or closed non inflammatory comedones in mild or moderate cases to inflammatory lesions consisting of papules, nodules and cysts in severe cases (Webster 2002). Acne (also called as pimples, zits, blemishes) mostly campaign to appear on face, neck, upper chest, shoulders and back. The reason behind this localization is the abundance of fatty glands in these beas of the body. The condition is not curable, but it is certainly manageable to a great extent. At times, the lesions so-and-so regress to almost none in cases managed properly. Socially, acne has been a source of low self esteem, shame, embarrassment and very much depression. It becomes a hindrance in making friends and getting along with people socially as the individuals tend to seclude themselves to avoid feeling further low about themselves.Acne vulgaris is basically an inherited condition (Liddel 1980). veritable(a) though the pattern of inheritance has not been identified yet, but 3 of 4 children are credibly to have acne if both parents happen to suffer from the disease. The sebaceous glands become activated at puberty to draw sebum under the influence of sex hormones. This along with the follicular epidermal hyper proliferation, results in plugging of the pilosebaceous follicular ducts with sebum and knackered skin cells. Superimposed by bacteria, this results in the formation of a microcomedone, which is the precursor of open and closed comedones (blackheads and whiteheads respectively) and at last the non inflammatory and inflammatory lesions.Acne vulgaris can be classified on the basis of its severity. The mild to moderate form includes whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules. The pores that are completely blocked by sebum and dead skin cells form closed whiteheads. Blackheads are the are pores partially blocked by sebum, dead skin cells and sometimes bacteria draining to the surface.
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Management Accounting - bereaucracy - Essay ExampleThe same history acknowledges the fact that some(prenominal) businesses and organisation had been in bad postures in the early years of the 1970s. This, according to many business analysts, was primarily owing to improper performance analysis techniques which would reflect real business situation. Importantly, stakeholders, peculiarly shareholders, were putting never-ending pressure on centering team to reach good end of year figures. If some theorists check into that this was mainly due to principle emphasis on external financial reporting and management comptroller neglected the need for internal accounting and financial monitoring in management accounting sanctioned functions others argue that this effect was attributable to other contextual factors.Management accounting has always been seen as a vital activity which reflects the health of the business, and the efficient use of resources. This performance measuring techniq ue is an important internally-based financial monitoring tool, which could guide corrective measures to be taken on many emerging departmental or process deviations. If many businesses have been part of the drastic changes involved in business process reengineering aiming at streamlining business processes at varied levels, the analysis and creation of management accounting data has also greatly evolved. The evolution of technology in the early years of the 1960s as well as changes in the direction of production have changed mindset to production-oriented management owing to the event of mass production.It has increasingly been recognised as from the second distinctive evolutionary stage of management accounting that, the need to appropriately use resources could crook the overall cost or production cost in many manufacturing companies, especially where machineries are touch on and that their fixed costs could influence greatly margins at year end. In this context, there have bee n drastic changes to scrutinise costs associated to each activity or process which is referred to as Activity-Based Costing. The main aim was to reducing the overall seemingly inaccurate overhead allocation based on standard American costing, especially cost of running machineries in period where large scale production and customisation was becoming popular as strategy. Management accounting at this particular stage inherently focus on data to palliate control which was a vitally important function in conventional management approach. Line management laying emphasis on production had as main objectives to satisfy orders and the critical data indispensable was to better control and monitor processes both in machineries and labour.The focus was to establish strategy mixes that support organisational objectives, and suffer and maintain the organisational capabilities necessary for strategy realisation. Furthermore, enormous consideration on
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
A Quick Look at Castiglione and Cellini Life EssayLawrence in his book Culture and Values A critique of the Humanities, stated that former(a) sixteenth-century Renaissance culture was a study in contrasts. The period not only marked a time when some of the most refined artificeric accomplishments were achieved, it was also a period of great cordial upheaval(332). In fact, there were many outstanding artists at that time, among them were Castiglione known for their philosophy of life and Cellini the first artist who really lived his own life.Castiglione was a well-rounded man with chivalry spirit as the author describe He was a versatile man a psyche of profound leaning, equipped with physical and militant skills, and possessed of a noble and refined demeanor(332). The fact that he well-educated and aristocratic, he worked at the Urbino tribunal from 1504 to 1506 and decided to write The Courtier that took him dozen years. According to the book he wrote, a true gentlemen sh ould have flair and have adequate knowledge about history but the most important thing is do not rely in Christian.He also mentioned in his book about how to refined address because when we redefined courtesy, we can clean the court. A cleaned court leads to a clean country. In addition, a well-rounded person according to Castiglione should do all thing sprezzatura means behavior in which every action is do not with effort and though about it. The influence of his book mainly impacted to the upper classes that taught what gentlemen should be. He imagined a courtiers world is a world very wealthy and aristocratic.Cellini was a quick-witted Florentine goldsmith and sculptor whose life, frankly chronicled, was a seemingly never-ending panorama of violence, intrigue, quarrel, sexual excess, egotism, and political machination(333). He lived a period of religious, political, social and military. He was the first artist ever frankly tell about his personal life at this period. In contr ast with Castiglione who wrote The Courtier, Cellinis life was very normal, he did whatever he want, he dared to love and do not care how public criticized him.In short, Cellini did not consider the most talented sculptors and nobody can deny his skill as a craftsman. An airy look of Castiglione and Cellini show us the contrast in humans way of life. In one hand, Castiglione was seemed to be perfect but in my point of view, his imaginary world was hard to be reach. In the other hand, I like Cellini who was a normal guy with his own talent. Life is short and maybe he knew it and he dated to do unusual thing despite of public opinion. Work citedLawrence Cunningham and John Reich, Culture and Values A Survey of the Humanities, Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.
Racism in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn EssayMalcolm X, Martin Luther King, and other saturnine anti-racist leading fought against discrimination. They fought a battle that has gone on longer than many people have been around, back in the 1800s. In the book The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn written by Mark Twain, twain wants us to see how this battle rages on today, affecting many peoples everyday lives.The book itself is very racist toward African Americans in which the word nigra is used. Many people use this word today, but back when Huck was around using earthy discriminating words was a regular issue. So the question is how is racism still shown today in the 20th century and the relationship in how Twain describes it in his book?First racial thing in the book is when Toms talking to Huck about breaking Jim out of jail. Tom says, Give a nigger a inch and he ell (88). When he says this he is saying that if you give a black person freedom, its giving them way too mu ch.But Huck isnt fond of using such a poignant word to Jim. Racism plays a big part when the King and the Duke show up on the raft with them. When they stay with the girls in the house, the sophomoric type of Duke says I should a reckoned the differences in the rank would sejested that a corn-shuck hindquarters wont fit for me to sleep on .Your Gracell take the shuck bed yourself (126). This shows his destitute for taking Jim poorly as a person and non just some dumb slave. The use of racist and porcine words was constantly heard from the white adults as well as the children in the novel. was Jim a shoo-in nigger?(126). Out of all the pieces of literature this book is known by many people worldwide, not only does things in this book still happen today, we can all relate this book.The lack of disturbance the whites had for blacks, thus, the whites have lost nearly all of their respect. This was Mark Twains indirect way of showing the whites inequality to the blacks. In todays a ge, the ideas of racism have definitely changed. Slavery is no more, and even the use of such language as nigger, is considered vulgar. But, as children such as Huck and Tom grew up considering slavery the normal, children today grow up learning the exact opposite.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Learning theories EssayPrimary look into consists of the collection of original base data. It is often undertaken subsequently the enquiryer has gained slightly insight into the issue by reviewing secondhand research or by analyzing previously equanimous primary data. It can be get hold ofed done various methods, including psychenaires and telephone interviews in foodstuff research, or experiments and direct observations in the physical sciences, amongst some others. Secondary exploreSecondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research sessher than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments. The term is widely used in medical research and in market research. The headspring methodology in medical secondary research is the systematic review, commonly apply meta-analytic statistical techniques, although other methods of synthesis, like realist revie ws and meta-narrative2 reviews, subscribe to been developed in repenny years. much(prenominal)(prenominal) secondary research uses the primary research of others typically in the mildew of research publications and reports. In a market research mount, secondary research is taken to include the re-use by a second give awayy of any data collected by a first party or parties. In archaeology and landscape history, desk research is telled with fieldwork. Primary Research Vs Secondary Research One of the major differences among the deuce is that primary research is conducted with the alleviate of primary sources available where as secondary research is conducted on the basis of some data collected from mortal who had got it from the sources.Primary research is expensive to conduct since it involves primary sources. But secondary research is not a good deal expensive as primary. another(prenominal) major difference between the ii is that primary research is some(prenominal) mor e time consuming as comp bed to secondary research. As a matter of fact the results plant by the primary research be commonly to go better quality than those from the conduct of the secondary research. Primary research is also usually detailed and elaborated since it is supposed to be both qualitative as well as quantitative.On the other hand data pertaining to secondary research is usually not much detailed and elaborated since it involves indirect uses. Primary research is done with a cumulation of hard work and dedication. On the hand secondary research is usually presented with a number of data and records. These are usually taken from books, periodicals published by governmental organizations, statistical data, annual reports and case national ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR.Organizational air is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on carriage within an organization for the purpose of applying such(prenominal) companionship towards improving an organizations trenchantness. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and commission and it complements the academic studies of organisational theory (which is focused on organisational and intra- organizational topics) and benignant resource studies (which is more applied and business-oriented).It whitethorn also be referred to as organizational studies or organizational science. The field has its roots in industrial and organizational psychology. 1 Organizational studies encompass the study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods, and aims of analysis. For instance, one textbook divides these multiple viewpoints into troika perspectives modern, symbolic, and postmodern.Another traditional distinction, present especially inAmerican academia, is between the study of micro organizational behaviour which refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting and macro strategic managem ent and organizational theory which studies whole organizations and industries, how they adapt, and the strategies, structures and contingencies that guide them. To this distinction, some scholars have added an interest in meso scale structures power, culture, and the networks of individuals and i. e. ronit units in organizations and field level analysis which study how whole populations of organizations interact.Whenever people interact in organizations, many factors hap into play. Modern organizational studies attempt to understand and model these factors. Like all modernist social sciences, organizational studies judge to control, predict, and explain. There is some controversy over the ethics of controlling workers behavior, as well as the modality in which workers are treated (see Taylors scientific management approach compared to the military psychenel relations movement of the 1940s). As such, organizational behaviour or OB (and its cousin, Industrial psychology) have a t times been accused of being the scientific tool of the powerful.Those accusations notwithstanding, OB can play a major role in organizational development, enhancing organizational performance, as well as individual and group performance/satisfaction/commitment. One of the principal(prenominal) finiss of organizational theoreticians is, according to Simms (1994), to revitalize organizational theory and develop a better c at one timeptualization of organizational life. An organizational theorist should carefully come across levels assumptions being made in theory, and is concerned to help managers and administrators. 1. foot TO acquisition.The process of instruction has great value for enriching gentlemans gentleman life in all spheres of life. All activities and behaviors that bemuse soulfulnessal, social and economic life peaceful and pleasurable are apprehended. Learning definitely affects human behaviour in organizations. There is little organizational behaviour that is not either directly or indirectly affected by accomplishment. For example, a workers skill, a managers attitude, a supervisors motivation and a secretarys mode of dress are all learned. Our ability to learn is also authoritative to organizations preoccupied with controlledperformance. Employees have to know what they are to do, how they are to do it, how well they are expected to do it, and the consequences of achieving good or poor levels of performance.Thus, reading theories have influenced a range of organizational practices concerning 1. The induction of new recruits 2. The instauration and deli very of job discipline 3. The design of payment systems- 4. How supervisors evaluate and provide feedback on employee performance 5. The design of forms of teaching organization The concept of the education organization became popular during the 1990s.The reading organization is a configuration of structures and policies which encourage individual culture, with individual and organizational benefits. The organization itself can also be regarded as an entity which is capable of learning independently of its members. Knowledge has thence bring a more important asset for many organizations than materials and products. 1. 1 WHAT IS LEARNING Learning covers near all behaviors and is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and values, emotional receipts (such as happiness and fear), and motor skills (such as operating a computer keyboard or riding a bicycle).We can learn incorrect facts or pick up bad habits in the same way that we learn correct facts and acquire good habits. It refers to a spectrum of changes that go by as a result of ones experience. Learning may be defined as any comparatively permanent change in behaviour or behavioral potential produced by experience. It may be noted here that some behavioral changes take place due to the use of medicates, alcohol, or fatigue. much(prenominal) changes are temporary. They are not con sidered learning. Therefore, changes are due to practice and experience, and relatively permanent, alone are illustrative of learning.In the definition given above, it is clear that the process of learning has certain distinctive characteristics. These are First, learning always involves some kind of experience. These experiences may be derived from inside the body or they may be sensory, arising outside. The working class of inferring whether or not learning has taken place may be an obvious one, solely apparent behaviour may not always reveal learning. It is important to distinguish between two roles of learning. Procedural learning or knowing how, concerns your ability to carry out incident skilled actions such as riding a horse.Declarative learning or knowing that, concerns your store of factual knowledge such as an mind of the history of our use of the horse. Second, the behavioral changes that take place due to learning are relatively permanent. Behaviour can be changed temporarily by many other factors and in ways which we would not like to call learning. These other factors include growing up or ontogeny (in children), aging (in enceintes), drugs, alcohol and fatigue. For example, you must have noticed that whenever one takes a sedative or drug or alcohol, ones behaviour changes.Each one of these drugs affect physiological functions leading to certain changes in behaviour. Such changes are temporary in temper and disappear as the effect of drugs wears out. Third, learning cannot be find directly. We can only observe a persons behaviour and draw the inference from it that learning has taken place. A distinction has to be made between learning and performance. Performance is evaluated by some quantitative and some qualitative measures of output. For example, the number of calls a sales representative makes to customers or the quality of a managers chairing of a mission meeting.But, learning acts as a constraint on the outcome. Normally, we ca nnot perform any better than we have learned, though there are occasions when the right motivational disposition and a supportive environment help to raise the level of performance. Researchers have found that step-upd motivation may improve our performance up to a point but, beyond this, increased motivation may cause a lowering of the level of performance. 2. PRECONDITIONS FOR LEARNING Two preconditions for learning lead increase the success of those who are to participate in such programs employee readiness and motivation.The condition known as employee readiness refers to both maturational and experiential factors in the employees background. Prospective employees should be screened to determine that they have the background knowledge or the skills necessary for learning what entrust be presented to them. Recognition of individual differences in readiness is as important in an organization as it is in any other learning situation. It is often desirable to group individuals ac cording to their capacity to learn, as determined by scores from tests, or to provide a different or ex mordant marketed type of instruction for those who need it.The other precondition for learning is that the employee be properly do. That is, for optimum learning the employee must recognize the need for getting new information or for having new skills and a desire to learn as learning progresses must be maintained. While people at work are motivated by certain common require, they differ from one another in the relative importance of these needs at any given time. For example, new recruits often have an intense desire for advancement, and have conventional specific goals for career progression.Objectives that are clearly defined will produce increased motivation in the learning process when instructional objectives are related to individual needs. 3. SOME PREREQUISITES FOR LEARNING After employees have been placed in the learning situation, their readiness and motivation shoul d be assessed set ahead. In addition, facilitators should understand the basic learning issues discussed below. 3. 1 MEANINGFUL MATERIALS In accordance with adult learning theories, the material to be learned should be organized in as meaningful a manner as possible.It should be arranged so that each successive experience builds upon preceding ones so that the employee is able to integrate the experiences into a useable soma of knowledge and skills. The material should have face validity. 3. 2 REINFORCEMENT Anything which strengthens the employees answer is called reinforcement. It may be in the form of approval from the instructor or facilitator or the feeling of accomplishment that heeds the performance or it may simply be confirmation by a software program that the employees response was correct.It is generally most in force(p) if it occurs immediately after a task has been performed. Behaviour modification, or a technique that operates on the principle that behaviour that i s rewarded positively (reinforced) will be exhibited more frequently in the future, whereas behaviour that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency, is often used for such purposes 3. 3 TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE Unless what is learned in the development activity is applicable to what is required on the job, the motion will have been of little value.The ultimate effectiveness of learning, therefore, is to be found in the answer to the question To what extent does what is learned transfer to the job? Helpful approaches include ensuring that conditions in the development program set as closely as possible to those on the job, and coaching employees on the principles for applying to the job the behaviors which they have learned. Furthermore, once formal instruction has been completed, the supervisor must ensure that the work environment supports, reinforces and rewards the employee for applying the new skills or knowledge.3. 4 KNOWLEDGE OF PROGRESS As an employees developmen t progresses, motivation may be maintained and veritable(a) increased by providing knowledge of progress. Progress, as determined by tests and other records, may be plan on a chart, commonly referred to as a learning curve. Exhibit 8. 9 is an example of a learning curve that is common in the acquisition of many job skills. 4. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING A. Distributed Learning Another factor that determines the effectiveness of learning is the amount of time given to practice in one session.Should development or development be undertaken in five two-hour periods or in 10 one-hour periods? It has been found in most cases that spacing out the activities will result in more rapid learning and more permanent retention. This is the principle of distributed learning. Since the most efficient distribution will vary according to the type and complexity of the task to be learned, it is desirable to make reference to the rapidly growing body of research in this area when an answer is required for a specific learning situation. B. Whole v.Part Learning close jobs and tasks can be broken down into parts that lend themselves to further analysis. The analysis of the most effective manner for completing each part then provides a basis for giving specific instruction. airway flight attendant jobs, for example, involve a combination of mechanistic (specific tasks that follow a positive(p) routine), and extreme (tasks that involve decision-making and individualized responses) duties, which are best learnt separately, and then combined to form the whole job responsibility.Thus, the prescribed takeoff and landing announcements, and formal safety procedures, are supplemented with separate learning activities almost how to deal with demanding passengers or how to cope with food supply problems. In evaluating whole versus part learning, it is necessary to consider the nature of the task to be learned. If the task can be broken down successfully for part learning, it should pro bably be taught as a unit. C. Practice and Repetition It is those things we do daily that become a part of our repertoire of skills.Employees need frequent opportunities to practice their job tasks in the manner in which they will at last be expected to perform them. The individual who is being taught to operate a machine should have an luck to practice on it. Similarly, the supervisor who is being taught how to train should have supervised practice in training D. Multiple Sense Learning It has long been acknowledged that the use of multiple senses increases learning. Smith and Delahaye state that about 80 per cent of what a person perceives is obtained visually, 11 per cent by hearing and 9 per cent by the other senses combined.It follows that in order to maximize learning, multiple senses of the employees, particularly sight and hearing, should be engaged. visual aids are therefore emphasized as being important to the learning and development activities. 5. THEORIES OF LEARNING OR APPROCHES TO LEARNING 1. BEHAVIORLIST APPROACH Behaviorism, as a learning theory, can be traced back to Aristotle, whose assay Memory focused on association being made between events such as lightning and thunder. opposite philosophers that followed Aristotles thoughts are Hobbs (1650), Hume (1740), Brown (1820), Bain (1855) and Ebbinghause (1885) (Black, 1995).Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner later developed the theory in more detail. Watson is the theorist credited with coining the term behaviorism. The school of adult learning theory that adopted these principles has become known as the school of behaviorism, which saw learning as a straightforward process of response to stimuli. The provision of a reward or reinforcement is believed to strengthen the response and therefore result in changes in behavior the test, according to this school of thought, is as to whether learning had occurred. Spillane (2002) states, the behaviorist perspective, associated with B.F. Skinner , holds that the mind at work cannot be observed, tested, or understood thus, behaviorists are concerned with actions (behavior) as the sites of knowing, teaching, and learning. The hypothesis behind behaviorlist learning theories is that all learning occurs when behavior is influenced and changed by external factors. Behavioralism disregards any notion that there may be an internal persona to mans learning. Grippin and Peters (1984) emphasize in regard to an individuals subjugation to external input signal as a determinant of response (i. e. , behavior).Contiguity is understood as the timing of events that is necessary to earn about behavioral change, while reinforcement refers to the probability that repeated positive or forbid events will produce an anticipated change in behavior. 1. (A) Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Classical conditioning is a reflex(a) or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Originators and Key Contributors First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist, in 1903, and studied in infants by John B.Watson (1878-1958). Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i. e. , making a new association between events in the environment. There are two forms of associative learning authorized conditioning (made famous by Ivan Pavlovs experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning. Pavlovs Dogs In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prize-winning work on digestion. While studying the role of saliva in dogs digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled psychic reflexes. While an accidental discovery, he had the prospicience to see the importance of it. Pavlovs dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were presented with meat mill and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he notic ed that his dogs who dismount salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler or merely by a clicking noise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder. Fascinated by this finding, Pavlov paired the meat powder with various stimuli such as the ringing of a bell.After the meat powder and bell (auditory stimulus) were presented unitedly several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlovs dogs, as predicted, responded by salivating to the sound of the bell (without the food). The bell began as a neutral stimulus (i. e. the bell itself did not produce the dogs salivation). However, by pairing the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to acquire the ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the basic building blocks of learning) are formed.He dedicated much of the rest of his career further exploring this finding. In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the dogs salivation is the unconditioned response (UCR). The bell is a neutral stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation after repeated pairings between the bell and food. John B. Watson advance(prenominal) Classical Conditioning with Humans John B. Watson further extended Pavlovs work and applied it to human beings.In 1921, Watson studied Albert, an 11 month old infant child. The goal of the study was to condition Albert to become afraid of a white rat by pairing the white rat with a very cheapjack, jarring noise (UCS). At first, Albert showed no sign of fear when he was presented with rats, but once the rat was repeatedly paired with the loud noise (UCS), Albert developed a fear of rats. It could be said that the loud noise (UCS) induced fear (UCR). Th e implications of Watsons experiment suggested that serious music conditioning could cause some phobias in humans. 1.(B) GOMS Model (Card, Moran, Newell) The GOMS Model is a human information processing model that predicts what skilled users will do in seemingly unpredictable situations. Originators and proponents Card, Moran and Newell in 1983 Bonnie John et al. This model is the general term for a family of human information processing techniques that attempt to model and predict user behavior. Typically used by software designers, a persons behavior is analyzed in terms of four components Goals something that the person wants to accomplish. Can be high level to low level.Operators basic perceptual, cognitive, or motor actions used to accomplish goals, or actions that the software allows user to make. Methods procedures (sequences) of sub-goals and operators that can accomplish a goal Selection rules personal rules users follow in deciding what method to use in a circumstance 1. (C) operant Conditioning (Skinner) A behaviorist theory based on the fundamental idea that behaviors that are reinforced will tend to continue, while behaviors that are punished will eventually end. Originators and Key Contributors B. F. Skinner, built upon Ivan Pavlovs theories of classical conditioning.Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and interdict reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence. Example 1 Parents rewarding a childs excellent grades with sweeten or some other prize. Example 2 A schoolteacher awards points to those students who are the most becalm and well-behaved. Students eventually realize that when they voluntarily become quieter and better behaved, that they earn more points.Example 3 A form of reinforcement (such as food) is given to an animal every time the animal (for example, a hungry lion) pr esses a lever. The term operant conditioning originated by the behaviorist B. F. Skinner, who believed that one should focus on the external, observable causes of behavior (rather than try to unpack the internal thoughts and motivations) Reinforcement comes in two forms positive and negative. Positive and negative reinforces Positive reinforces are favorable events or outcomes that are given to the individual after the desired behavior.This may come in the form of praise, rewards, etc. Negative reinforces typically are characterized by the removal of an undesired or unpleasant outcome after the desired behavior. A response is strengthened as something considered negative is removed. The goal in both of these cases of reinforcement is for the behavior to increase. Positive and negative punishment Punishment, in contrast, is when the increase of something undesirable attempts to cause a decrease in the behavior that follows. Positive punishment is when unfavorable events or outcomes a re given in order to weaken the response that follows.Negative punishment is characterized by when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a undesired behavior occurs. The goal in both of these cases of punishment is for a behavior to decrease. What is the difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning? In operant conditioning, a voluntary response is then followed by a reinforcing stimulus. In this way, the voluntary response (e. g. studying for an exam) is more likely to be done by the individual. In contrast, classical conditioning is when a stimulus automatically triggers an involuntary response. 1. (D) brotherlyist Learning Theory (Bandura).Banduras Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. Originator Albert Bandura People learn through observing others behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. (Bandura). Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous joint interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Necessary conditions for effective modeling 1. Attention various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention gainful. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, operating(a) value. Ones characteristics (e. g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention. 2. Retention remembering what you paid attention to.Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal 3. Reproduction reproducing the image. Including physica l capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction. 4. want having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such asA past (i. e. traditional behaviorism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model) Bandura believed in reciprocal determinism, that is, the world and a persons behavior cause each other, while behaviorism essentially states that ones environment causes ones behavior, Bandura,who was studying adolescent aggression, found this too simplistic, and so in addition he suggested that behavior causes environment as well.Later, Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three components the environment, behavior, and ones psychological processes (ones ability to entertain images in minds and language). 2. CONSTURCTIVIST Constructivism is a synthesis of multiple theories diffused into one form. It is the assimilation of both behaviorialist and cognitive ideals. The constructivist stance maintains that learnin g is a process of constructing meaning it is how people make sense of their experience.This is a combination effect of using a persons cognitive abilities and insight to understand their environment. This coincides especially well with current adult learning theory. This concept is easily tran just the ticketd into a self-directed learning style, where the individual has the ability to take in all the information and the environment of a problem and learn. Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The apprentice is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own intrinsic representations of objective reality.New information is linked to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. Originators and important contributors Vygotsky, Piaget, Dewey, Vico, Rorty, Bruner Constructivism A reaction to didactic approaches such as behaviorism and programmed instruction, constructivism states tha t learning is an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it. Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment. Learners continuously test these hypotheses through social negotiation.Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process. The learner is not a blank slate (tabula rasa) but brings past experiences and cultural factors to a situation. Vygotskys theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes study themes 1. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piagets understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development.He states Every function in the childs cultural development appears twice first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level first, between people (inter-psychological) and then inside the child (intra-psychological). 2. The more(prenominal) Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers. 3. The Zone of proximal Development (ZPD).The ZPD is the distance between a students ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the students ability resolve the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone. Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop t hese tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs.Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills. 3. COGNITIVISM The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the black box of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). Originators and important contributors Merrill -Component Display Theory (CDT), Reigeluth (Elaboration Theory), Gagne, Briggs, Wager, Bruner (moving toward cognitive constructivism), Schank (scripts), Scandura (structural learning) The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in 1960s as the dominant paradigm.Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities opening the black box of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn. Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored. Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. Learning is def ined as change in a learners schemata. A response to behaviorism, people are not programmed animals that merely respond to environmental stimuli people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking.Changes in behavior are observed, but only as an indication of what is occurring in the learners head. Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as computer information comes in, is being processed, and leads to certain outcomes. 3. 1 GESTALT psychological science Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German Gestalt essence or shape of an entitys complete form) is a theory of mind and head of the Berlin School the operational principle of gestalt psychology is that the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies.
Sunday, April 14, 2019
Power of confabulation EssayCommunication is the staple homosexual need to sh are meanings and express ideas and thoughts and that can be achieved by the ex counterchange of data between the society members. The litigate of communication is defined by the technology available, culture and protocols of communication. Political scientists are elicit in policy-making communication through with(predicate) studying the interaction communication between the governmental constitution and the political process generally and they confirmed the importance of the fundamental relationship between them, they called for re-examination and analysis of political science based on communication theories. Politics is difficult to be found without communication because in that respect must be a link between the in the public eye(predicate) and the ruling elite (decision makers), and this applies to the political outline too. Citizens must be able to communicate their wishes and demands to the government, and the government should be able to communicate its decisions to citizens and justify them to get through their satisfaction.Political parties and politicians needs huge public support, Where it can be said that political communication is the virtually important agent of communication that must be followed by a caller in gear up to gain such support. It is well known that the objective of any party is to access power or participate in it and this can non be reached without large public support. This political communication can take mixed forms depends on the technology available such as press, radio, television and digital ne 2rked media.The political communication is the good way of any party members to open dialogue with the masses of the multitude for establish the doctrine of their party to them, and gain popular support for the policy and programs of the party, where they listen to note of the public towards some situations and impressions towards it, and the members of the party again, during their tendentious meetings to discuss the various social and economic problems in the society, and that need solutions, ranging proposals of different party members to fixing these problems through the hierarchical organization of the party until it reaches the level of leadership and integrate in the various party programs. thereby ensuring this party kind of interaction with he public surrounding it, so that lead the response to the wishes and requirements of the public in the general policy of the party, to achieve a great deal of compatibility between the party and track folk, and this goes back to the party with a great benefit in elections times, When the public find the investigator to them ambitions and expectations, and This causes at normal conditions for arrival (the party with compatibility larger with the popular will) to rule the country.Communication was and will continue to be the just about important activity in human life through interacts with others to express ideas, needs and feelings and dreams, and has verbalized their personality, culture and devoiddom and the idea of an activity that can be embodied the meaning of human hauteur and values. So this make this activity one of the most activities accountable of various standards, pressures and the laws that are on the self-colored a fundamental question about the nature of the relationship between the media and the ethics and other aspects of human life.Communication science benefited and interact with all the of Sciences and knowledge, humanitarian, technical data and the science explain to us at this time to what affect the means of mass communication in the minds of the people and what is the size of this effect and how it is affecting. No one can deny the importance of these theories of communication that formed the communication science which had experimented in communities that follow and tried to apply. The communication tools pl ay an important role in political life, whether internal or the outside, not only political professionals are attach importance to their communication strategy, solely governed also gaining most of their information through the communication tools.The means of mass communication possesses the characteristics and capabilities of multiple distinct from those when its counterparts from groups or discernment leaders, are in any case means mass communication addresses the daily huge cross sections of the cosmos with one voice. The means of communication and media are undeniable and important to make effectively communication cerebrate and interactions are always open between the ruler and the governed.Definitely, mass communication has evolved technically accompanied by the technological development happened to human societies in all fields, in ancient societies (Greek and Roman society), political community was limited and number of citizens who can be covered by ruling messages was known, so it was direct speeches and forums in public places established in open air r in the theaters of the city that was one of the most forms of political communication, so it was politicians highly dependent on rhetoric and the ability to inference to convince they governed, This free space for debate and political communication that helped to create direct democracy known as the Athenian democracy, But with the development of human societies and the expansion of political activity field bearing regimes of modern political became not possible to rely solely on speeches and seminars, which includes a limited number of citizens, but became necessary to find a communication to spread and includes a wide segment of the public. (Karl W. Deutsch, 2006) Literature ReviewDenis McQuail, 2010 Seen these arguments written, optic and audio as a tool of direct democracy, and as a court of public opinion open day and night put the law for everything all the time, not a substitute for inst itutions, but such ray of light detector that keeps moving here and there, revealing always talking about the depths of darkness Jacques Gerstle, 2004 One of the basic properties of the twentieth century is the communication tools revolution, and the appearance the community of communication.We saw the appearance of red-hot techniques for political communication, these techniques that contributed in dissemination and sharing the information, ideas and communities in conditions limited time and across a wide geographical. Since the advent of printing, which contributed historically in the advancement of the theory and practice of democracy through news media written is the court of public opinion, as well as with the emergence of radio, which was the most important means of communication used in the second world war propaganda by politicians, through well television, which affects more than other means of mass communication.Various categories divergent public and geographically, does not follow some of the obstacles go about by other means such as the written press such as scattering problems and an individuals ability to read all the way to satellites to broadcast dimensional networks of electronic communication global thrust of information and ideas and comply with the limits of regional and geographical, with the development of all these means and which was called some people name new technologies for information and communication find that the process of political communication has evolved is also no longer this process takes place using the means of communication like a traditional speech, for example. Gabriel A. Almond, 2004 That everything in politics is communication, organization of communication is one of the main carry for the flow of information from the elite to the masses and also to transmit the problems of the masses and their aspirations and their perceptions to the elite. Robert Wiener, David Jerison, I. Isadore Manuel Singer, Daniel W.Strook, 1997 If we realized politics is system so communication system is the nerve that controls the system, and the systems ability to recitation command and control linked to its ability to deal with the information, so that communication and control are two synonymous of same meaning, every time we call we also control. Karl W. Deutsch, William J. Foltz, 2010 The nerves of government political Communication and Control is proposed similar political regime system Cyber zonular, describes the relationship between the political system and its milieu under shape or environment Cyber zonular, which imagined that communication as a system of decisions based on the flood of diverse information, and is communication and media the most important issues in political science, and confirms it is wrong to neglecting or underestimate the role of other changes. Dr.Schwatzenberg, 1990 Political communication is the path that moves the political information one part to other parts of th e political regime and between this system and the social system, it is path continuously to exchange of information between individuals and groups at all levels, It is especially the exchange of information between rulers and govern that will understand the agreement between them, each governor seeks to accepting his decisions, and all governed trying to structured and their needs are taken in the consideration, and compatibility and harmonization be realized only through the communication and through exchange. Harold Dwight Lasswell, peter de Leon, 2009 Political community like the pyramid, where rulers are elite at the top of the pyramid and the masses of people at the base, and between them there experts and specialists in the middle between the top and the base, and being communication processes on the basis that each nation have political ystem specific consists of elite, They are responsible for the decision and charge on the states economic resources and human resources, to achieve the goals and programs of the State, the ruling elite and using tools of communication specialized experts believe they are the ones those can be in the process of communication between the elite and controlled groups, and staff work in this area have their role in attracting public attention to social issues. Alvin Toffler, 1984 That there is a relationship substantially between communication process and the political process, if the world of politics is based on power, the desires of those who have power must be transmitted to the expect they will respond to it, and if the world of politics is based on the legitimacy of the highest authority, the matter requires a means by which based the symbolic panorama of values and procedural standards for such systems, and if the world of politics based on participation, this means finding channels transporting the interests and demands of the citizens to decision makers. Kenneth E. Boulding. 989 The political process, such as the decision-making process, it is also a test of the roles of power in society, and in response to the images Stereotypes formed by political means of communication in society, The means of communication change of images Stereotypes of individuals, and political behavior based on images Stereotypes. Theories and Models of Communication (Difference Job Title and convergence of concept and function) Studies in Communication Sciences provided us science of communication in the framework is not clear in ground of mixing in some of the concepts and nomenclature may be the reason in that transfers of these sciences at the hands of a Type is not specialized and qualified in the field of media and communication.So still disarray exists between science communication and science media and between theories and models in communication process but later multiple studies in the field of media, communication and development study of media and communications at universities and institutes in the threesome world and after a significant increase in who have advanced degrees in media from western universities appeared a new generation of communication scholars provided us this real science in its context where they ruled for differentiating between the media and science communication and science and have sacrificed the relationship between them, and provided us both models and theories on the units and they ruled for differentiating among them.
Friday, April 12, 2019
Crocs EssayThe companys indigenous products include footwear and accessories which utilize its proprietary closed cell-resin, Croslite. It operates through three segments Americas, Europe and Asia. *source from WSJ. The gunstock damage (from 1/1/2007 to now) shows the overall up and down trends to Crocs. The point indicates on Nov. 2007, Crocss price meltdown. Clearly, Nov 2007 is just a start for Crocs to keep going down. 2. Management problems-Inventory Crocs is a huge shoe-manufactory and international company. As mentioned in the case, there is some management problems exist in the company. As seen the chart of price above, much(prenominal) big volatile may reflect something wrong in the company. As we analyze the balance stable gear and income statement of Crocs. We find that the inventory turnover is a little depressed. That is a huge problem for Crocs.Because the low rate means there are too much otiose inventory in the company. small-arm shoes are fashionable ite ms and Crocs is now offering large amount of new styles to customers. Thus the surplus inventories do damage to the company. The chart below compares Crocs with related-field companies to see if the inventory turnover is really low. *source from www. sec. gov/ However, I think Crocss inventory crisis may not be that serious. Because Crocs is an international company which focuses on seasonal worker products, the excess inventory can be digested selling abroad.Besides, there is another way to handle this problem. harmonize to Ron Snyder, President and CEO of Crocs, theres really no risk in having excess inventory of our high-volume products, where the new products we loss to have excess capacity in place where, when a given style takes off in a season, we can quickly ramp up and take advantage of that new style.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
Richard Cory by Edwin Arlington Robinson EssayThe rime Richard Cory by Edwin Arlington Robinson is a olfactory sensation rollercoaster. The tone changes throughout the meter. The poem goes from happiness, to envious, ending in depression. The motive successfully uses different tones to keep on the contributors attention and realistically tell a story that can be identified with todays society.The author uses happiness to draw in the readers attention and to keep the reader happy as if he or she was actually there. The author describes Richard Cory in a manor that makes the reader feel like he or she is happy to see Richard walking down the street. The author statesWhenever Richard Cory went down the town,We people on the pavement looked at himHe was a gentleman from sole to crown, disinvest favored, and imperially slim. (Robinson 1-4)The author also starts off by giving Richard Cory the characteristics of a happy person kind of of a person that was gloomy. The author s tatesAnd he was always quietly arrayed,And he was always human when he talkedBut still he fluttered pulses when he said,Good-morning, and he glittered when he walked. (Robinson 5-8)LaRue 2The author does successfully uses the tone of happiness to start off thefirst two paragraphs of the poem.The second tone used by the author is envious. The author changes the tome from happiness to envious to keep the readers attention. The author makes the reader envy Richard Cory by giving him to envious traits wealth and intelligence. The author writesAnd he was rich-yes, richer than a king-And admirably schooled in every graceIn fine, we mentation that he was everythingTo make us wish that we were in his place. (Robinson 9-12)This is true with todays society everyone wants what he or she doesnt nurse and to be who he or she isnt.The final tone used by the author is depression. This is the most forceful and unexpected change in tone throughout the poem. The author states, And so we worked, an d waited for the light, and went without the meat and cursed the bread(Robinson 13-14). This makes the reader depressed for realizing all the sacrifices one makes to get a head in life. Then the most cast down part of the poem is when the author states, And Richard Cory, one calm summer night, Went home and put a dope through his head. Everyone liked what Richard Cory had on the outside but they never knew what he felt on the inside.In conclusion, raze though the author takes the reader on an emotional rollercoaster he keeps the readers attention throughout the poem with his different uses of tone. The three different types of tones the author uses accurately portray how regular society feels toward celebrities. The truth is everyone has problems and even if not financially than some sort of other problem.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
Simon Cowell EssaySimon Cowell was born on October 7, 1959, in London, England. Cowell started his travel in the harmony industry working in the mailroom at EMI Music Publishing. He worked as a record producer, talent scout and consultant within the music industry before producing the hit British TV provide Pop idol and its U.S. counterpart, American Idol.Cowells scathing comments were famous during his 10 inures as a judge on American Idol. He started judging The X Factor in 2011. QUICK FACTS OCCUPATION Music Producer, human beings Television Star BIRTH DATE October 07, 1959 (Age 53) EDUCATION Dover College PLACE OF BIRTH London, linked demesne FULL NAME Simon Phillip Cowell, ZODIAC SIGN Libra Early CareerSimon Phillip Cowell was born on October 7, 1959 in London, England. His father, Eric Philip Cowell, was an state agent developer and music industry executive. His mother, Julie Brett, was a former ballet dancer and socialite. Cowell attended indoctrinate at Dover Co llege, but dropped out at 16. He floated in and out of jobs, sabotaging several interviews for jobs posit up by his father. He finally landed a job at his fathers company as a mailroom clerk at EMI Music Publishing. He managed to earn a position as an suspensor to an AR executive at EMI in 1979, where he was promoted and given the job of talent scout. Cowell go away EMI during the first eighties to form ES Music with his boss at EMI, Ellis Rich.The company created several hits, but Cowell left by mutual agreement a few years later. In 1985, he and a coadjutor make the independent label Fanfare Records, which enjoyed short-lived success. The company folded in 1989. In financial straits, Cowell was constrained to expire back in with his family. Undeterred, Cowell signalizeed on as a consultant with BMG Records later that equivalent year. He moved back into his own place, and gradually climbed the corporate ladder at BMG. He managed to sign a string of successful acts for the company, selling more(prenominal) than 150 gazillion records and 70 top-charting singles in the UK and United States. Sign In RegisterMOBILE EMAIL UPDATES PEOPLETVVIDEOPHOTOSGAME web logON THIS DAYSHOPSEE WHATS ON TONIGHT Mobsters Tune In Tuesdays 8/7cmore sharing servicesshare Simon Cowell biography profile photos 1 photoQUICK FACTSNAME Simon CowellOCCUPATION Music Producer, naive realism Television StarBIRTH DATE October 07, 1959 (Age 53)EDUCATION Dover CollegePLACE OF BIRTH London, United domainAKA Simon CowellFULL NAME Simon Phillip CowellZODIAC SIGN LibraBEST KNOWN FORSimon Cowell is a record producer and telly personality known for his scathing critical remarks as a judge on the tv show, American Idol. QUIZThink you know about Biography?Answer questions and see how you rank against other players. work NOWHome People Simon CowellPrint Cite This compendiumSimon Cowell was born on October 7, 1959, in London, England. Cowell started his career in the music industry w orking in the mailroom at EMI Music Publishing. He worked as a record producer, talent scout and consultant within the music industry before producing the hit British TV show Pop Idol and its U.S. counterpart, American Idol. Cowells scathing comments were famous during his 10 seasons as a judge on American Idol. He started judging The X Factor in 2011.CONTENTSSynopsisEarly CareerPop Idol and American IdolThe X FactorIndustry sciencePersonal sustenanceQUOTESIn TV, film and music theres a lot of snobbery, and I dont like it. If I dont like French food, that doesnt make me a lesser person. Simon CowellEarly CareerSimon Phillip Cowell was born on October 7, 1959 in London, England. His father, Eric Philip Cowell, was an estate agent developer and music industry executive. His mother, Julie Brett, was a former ballet dancer and socialite.Cowell attended school at Dover College, but dropped out at 16. He floated in and out of jobs, sabotaging several interviews for jobs set up by his fa ther. He finally landed a job at his fathers company as a mailroom clerkat EMI Music Publishing. He managed to earn a position as an assistant to an AR executive at EMI in 1979, where he was promoted and given the job of talent scout. Cowell left EMI during the early 1980s to form ES Music with his boss at EMI, Ellis Rich.The company created several hits, but Cowell left by mutual agreement a few years later. In 1985, he and a partner formed the independent label Fanfare Records, which enjoyed short-lived success. The company folded in 1989. In financial straits, Cowell was forced to move back in with his family.Undeterred, Cowell signed on as a consultant with BMG Records later that same year. He moved back into his own place, and gradually climbed the corporate ladder at BMG. He managed to sign a string of successful acts for the company, selling more than 150 million records and 70 top-charting singles in the UK and United States. Pop Idol and American IdolIn 2001, Cowell teamed up with Simon Fuller to produce a show in which the public chooses Britains next big music performance star. The show, Pop Idol, debuted in the UK and promised a BMG record deal to the winner. With Cowell as a judge notorious for reducing contestants to tears, the show was an instant success, drafting more than 10,000 would-be stars to audition for the show. The American version, American Idol, debuted in 2002, with Cowell once again judging alongside singer Paula Abdul and producer Randy Jackson.The show drew in a record number of viewing audience for Fox, in addition to producing pop stars Kelly Clarkson (2002), Ruben Studdard (2003), Fantasia Barrino (2004), Jennifer Hudson (2004), Carrie Underwood (2005), Taylor Hicks (2006), Jordin Sparks (2007) and David Cook (2008), among others. Cowell has become known for combining his music and television interests. He set up another company, SYCOtv, in 2002. The company created the television shows American Inventor, Americas Got Talen t and X-Factor. The meeting also produces records for many of the performers on Cowells shows including albums for Leona Lewis and Il Divo. New pointIn 2011, Cowell helped import his hit British series The X Factor to America. The show is a talent search that awards a $5 million recording contract tothe winner. Cowell even gave up his judging duties on American Idol to sit bird-scarer and center at The X Factor auditions. Television viewers loved this competition, which proved to be a success in the ratings. Cowells fellow judges included legendary recording executive L.A. Reid, former American Idol judge and singer Paula Abdul, and singer Nicole Scherzinger of Pussycat Dolls fame.The X Factor kicked impinge on its second season in September 2012 with a few line-up changes. Pop star Britney Spears and actress-singer Demi Lovato joined the show as judges, successor Abdul and Scherzinger. For the third season, the series made yet another change to the members of the judges panel, replacing Reid and Spears for Kelly Rowland and Paulina Rubio. Mario Lopez also stepped in as the primary host for the show afterwards co-hosting with Khloe Kardashian during the second season. Industry RecognitionIn 2004, diversion Weekly named Simon Cowell as one of the Top Entertainers of the Year. In 2006, he renewed his contract with American Idol for five more seasons the deal gave him a yearly salary of $40 million. That same year, he was named Varietys UK record of the Year. In 2007, Cowell earned the No. 3 slot on the Forbes TV Faces List, and No. 21 on Forbes Celebrity 100 Power List. He also created an American Idol spin-off, Idol Gives Back, a two-episode surplus that helped to provide aid to children in Africa and the American poor. The show raised $76 million for charity. Personal LifeSince his time on American Idol, Cowell has been romantically linked to several women in public relationships. Rumors began to swirl after Cowell was seen flirting with his Idol co-ho st Paula Abdul that the two were an item. However, both celebrities confirmed that they were merely friends, despite their chemistry on camera. In early 2010, Cowell announced that he was engaged to Idol makeup artist Mezghan Hussainy. The couple broke off their engagement in 2012, with Cowell saying, We came to the conclusion that Im a hopeless boyfriend.He also reportedly gave Hussainy a 5million firm in Beverly Hills as a parting gift. In December of the same year, Cowell confirmed that he was dating actress and model Carmen Electra. The relationship only lasted a few months, with Cowell confirming that the twohad separated in early 2013. In 2009, Cowell revealed that he had no intention of having children, stating, With kids, youve got a routine you cant escape from. Youve got to be up at a certain time, got to listen, when all you want to do is sit in a niche thinking.His position on kids softened three years later during an interview with AOL in 2012, during which he verbal ize I do really, really like kids, because I can talk to them and listen toIve always dedicate all my life to work, and at 52, Ive probably missed the opportunity. Despite his views on parenthood, a source told US Weekly in July 2013 that Cowell was expecting his first child with Lauren Silverman, wife of his close friend Andrew Silverman.Although Andrew and Laura Silverman are technically in time married, them. The problem has always been how much time you need to devote to bringing up kids. the source told Us Weekly that a divorce has been in the works for a while. Cowell has yet to comment on his maintain part in the high profile pregnancy.