Monday, April 1, 2019
Entrepreneurial Management In Marks And Spencer
entrepreneurial Management In label And SpencerThe issue of entrepreneurial precaution is suddenly important for any cheek, as it is responsible for the realisation of strategical plans and fear objectives by agency of the humane resources available for a troupe. This report discusses the perspectives and challenges of entrepreneurial perplexity in label Spencer and particularly the issue of the relationship with human resources. The analysis of the problem relies on the exemplars of organisational physique context, organisational horticulture and entrepreneurial skills.The originator explores and analyses the changes that the organisational has underg integrity and only(a) in respects to MSs organisational twist and how their culture has been formulated. The necessary components of core managerial skills and postulatencies capture been discussed in-line with MSs entrepreneurial activities. These factors concord been evaluated and recommendations progress to been made.The author concludes that on the one hand, the recent reduction of the levels in the organisational social mental synthesis of MS is beneficial for the connection as the conversation mingled with the level, transp bency and overall effectiveness increase. On the other hand, precise power structure and centralisation (mechanistic structure) make the lodge sturdy and difficult to adapt. Also tight purlieual conditions and the current strategic objectives underline the conduct for organisational learning and superior girdment for both common employees and managers, which should be oriented to develop their existing entrepreneurial skills. The author solid grounds that MS should retaliate the well-nigh ready and progressive managers creating motivation by all inwardness. It is recommended that the organisational structure is flattened tho, managerial chink and converse should be correctd to secure better execution of instruments of MS and that the party sho uld act in a much(prenominal) than(prenominal) consultative manner.2. Case Study Marks SpencerThe caller-up Marks Spencer (MS) was founded by Michael Marks in 1884. Michael initially opened a stall at Leeds Kirkgate market that sold various items much(prenominal) as nails, screws, soap and woody spoons for a penny each. In 1893 Michael decided to return back to his groundwork routes in Manchester, and set up a shop d featurestairs from where he lived. He decided to seek a cable enterprise partner the business partner being Thomas Spencer.Today, MS is the bigst UK seller with 600 domestic outlets. Furthermore, the society is presented in over 40 other countries (294 foreign outlets). Marks Spencer concentrates preponderantly of clothing and food retailing, which constitute 49% and 51% of its business respectively. The club offers stylish, eminent quality and great value clothing, as well as giving nodes the opportunity to purchase food that is of outstanding qualit y that has been responsibly sourced from approximately 2,000 suppliers globally. The company has buzz offn substantially by means ofout the years the company direction and strategies have been manipulated to cater for the deprivations and desires of their existing and potential customer base and other stakeholders such as the employees, community, suppliers, shareholders and so forth. MS believes that their company set of Quality, Value, Service, Innovation and Trust are not new-sprung(prenominal)ly established, and state that they are the principles that the business was founded (MS, 2010).More than 75,000 are employed by the upstanding all over the world. In 2009, revenue of MS was equal to 9,062 one one thousand million million million net income constituted 506 million. The companys profitability has been much higher prior to the recession. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and is included in the FTSE atomic descend 6 Index (MS, 2009). The shar e price reached its peak in 2007, and took a salient fall in 2008.MS has a variety of competitors ranging from the main supermarket groups, to fussyists in fashion and homeware. The competitory environment has changed in recent years collect to the rise of home shopping, and more consumers purchasing products from catalogues and the Internet. MS have to compete on price, what they have to offer, the rising expectations of the consumers and on the in-store experience.MSs counselling recognise the emergency to do business in an ethical way to yield products and service to stimulate public interest and to abide by legislations/regulations such as consumers rights, environmental rules and other Industry regulations.Management have attracted 21 million people visiting the stores each week by their entrepreneurial implementations through their decision qualification handlees by acting competitively and innovatively, similarly by differentiating themselves from their competitors in the retail intentness by what they have to offer and by their upstanding ethical stance. The organisational design, organisational culture and the entrepreneurial skills that the precaution possess have contri anded to MSs success in recent years. Management have been able to bite opportunities depression were other competitors havent, or have not been fast ample to act such as in 2002 MS announced that it was the first ever retailer to use only free-range eggs in all of their products, in 2005 MSs Cafe Revive were the first UK Coffee chemical chain to offer Fair-Trade tea and coffee as standard, and in 2008 by change state the first retailer to remove all artificial colour and flavourings from their sinless food and soft drinks range (MS, 2008). MS employees whitethorn therefore olfactory sensation a sense of ecstasy for working for a well established, powerfully ethical and successful company, thus potentially improving their co-operation and motivational levels.Stu art Rose, the death chair/Chief Executive of MS expressed that the company has a see goal in everything they do to build a sustainable business for the long term, generating shareholder value through consistent, profitable growth whilst making sure that customers lowlife trust them to do the right thing. Rose states that customers of MS have told us that despite the impact of the recession our commitment to the environment and trading fairly is still important to them (MS, 2009). MS have think ambitions to satisfy the general public by challenging themselves with the implementation of excogitation A, aiming to become the worlds most sustainable major retailer by 2015 that could as well as prove to be a factor that encourages customer trueness and foster establishing a competitive advantage. Plan A was launched in January 2007 and is a louver year eco-plan which has a positive contribution to the environment and society in every aspect of how MS do business so that they grow in a sustainable way.The plan addresses challenges across five areas temper change, waste, sustainable raw materials, fair partner and health (http//plana.marksandspencer.com).MS has a standard centralised organisational structure that is characteristic to the majority of the UK sixfold retailers. The organisation structure is vertical (Whitehead, 1994). MS has moved to a new pet structure recently, which implies the reduction of organisational layers in the structure (Varley, 2006) this therefore makes the organisation fleet to perceive any changes and respond to them. Due to the organisation having a broad complex structure, MS have to suss out that managerial control and communication throughout the hierarchy is efficient and effective to try ensuring high employee morale and motivation, thus a more efficient and effective hands to take care MSs strategic objectives. This is a key problem area that MS need to focus on. The structure of the hierarchy is complex therefor e employees attitudes and values whitethorn only be conveyed to the employees line manager. This reflects the importance of communication in MS mingled with the vertical levels of authority. The softeners style is tyrannic the business decisions are typically made and influenced by focus only with a insufficiency of consultation of the employees. Consultation could give employees recognition, motivation and a sense of belong/need.The recession has had direct effect on MS in price of profitability and their entrepreneurial thinking in decision making processes, due(p) to the serious nature and potential negative associations that empennage follow from such an economic downturn. In October 2008 Stuart Rose declared that Consumer confidence stoped fragile and the retail environment was unpredictable (http//business.timesonline.co.uk) this enforcing company management to act in an entrepreneurial way, by being alert and acting rapidly in the best(p) interests of the organisat ion and its stakeholders. MSs management realise that there is an importance of having the ability to lie with any opportunities available in the scope to improve customer loyalty and confidence in the brand to attempt to overcome the negative stance effects of the recession and assisting the creation of stability/prosperity for the company. fit to Morgan (2001) the great deal reserves the training of practiced skills and business competencies of their employees. Afterwards, the effectiveness analysis of the learning is conducted inwardly six months (Schutt, 2006). The learning process is necessary for the management to develop entrepreneurial skills to lead the workforce in an effective, appropriate and motivational manner.In January 2009 management announced that they were to cut costs by reducing their workforce by one thousand staff members across the retail stores, head office and their substitute functions (www.telegraph.co.uk). This reflects the need for strict manage ment of the workforce and certain constraints to be use in such a dynamic environment to meet ill-considered/long term company objectives.The company comprehend the requirement to ensure that there is a focused proportionality between each of the stakeholders demand and desires sacrifices such as these cost cutting measures have been implemented in attempts to outweigh financial uncertainty. jibe to Stiegert and Kim (2009) the rewards and bonuses for the employees in MS have been bring down considerably with the coming of the global financial crisis which could be detrimental for the workforces time to come efficiency, motivation and morale thus potentially affecting customer satisfaction levels.MS strive to satisfy stakeholders through the utilisation of the management aggroup and their employees. They emphasise the need for effective managerial control in-line with company objectives for the employees to see the entailment of their job specifications to provide efficiency that whitethorn contribute to a competitive advantage being established for MS. The outcome of this process pass on decide the companys future competitive stance in their market.3. Context of Organisational normalAccording to Ferrell (1979) and Gibson et al. (2003), the notion of organisational design is directly associated with the creation of formal relationship, roles and processes in spite of appearance an organisation. The police detective has chosen the mock up that describes the context of organisational design, since it is necessary to analyse the material and conditions of the management process and managers roles within Marks Spencer from the very beginning. According to Stanford (2005), the model of the context of organisational design is five-fold, where all the components are mutually influenced.The context of organisational design in Marks Spencer tin tummy be presented as followsStructureMS has a standard centralised organisational structure that is characte ristic to the majority of the UK multiple retailers. Marks Spencer does not possess any manufacturing facilities in Great Britain. This means that the success of this retail business is determined by great centralisation. The company has a vertical structure (Whitehead, 1994). MS has moved to a new flatter structure recently, which implies the reduction of organisational layers in the structure (Varley, 2006). The composition of the second-layer management team is the following human resources, international business, retail, IT and logistics, food, store marketing and design, merchandise, pay and operations, marketing (MS, 2009).It can be argued that such hierarchy and the reduced number or levels in the organisational structure to be an advantage (mechanistic structure). The communication between the layers is better arranged, tasks and responsibilities are craply defined, which is the key to stability. However, it may be argued that the square organisation is less flexible a nd adaptive as in the grapheme of organic structure. This deals predominantly with the initiative of lower rank managers.SizeAccording to the size of it, Marks Spencer can be classified as a large business, since the company employs more than 75,000 people all over the world (MS, 2010). broad size implies extensive hierarchy from the CEO to a common prole (Coe, 2004). Despite the fact that organisational structure has been flattened recently, it is complicated anyway. Huge size obliges MS to state and restate precise responsibilities on a habitue basis. The fulfilment of duties raises the problem of advanced managerial control.EnvironmentThe environment in which Marks Spencer ranges can be characterised as complex. The company is to respect consumer rights, operate according to the regulations in the industry and comply with environmental rules such as waste control (Bevan, 2001). Furthermore, MS is responsible to provide timely salaries and remuneration to its employees (J ones and Simmons, 1990). Moreover, the company is to adjust to recent social changes, which imply that the UK residents tend to make it more time online than outdoors. It is valid to argue that such a complex environment makes the management process within MS more difficult. ruin entrepreneurial skills are required from the top management. And more educate strategies should be used. It can be argued that in such conditions, there is a jam need for greater integration of the departments of Marks Spencer.TechnologyThe technologies implemented in Marks Spencer would be rather characterised as routine technologies. Being of a clothes and food retailer, the company faces automatic and frequently repeated processes and tasks. actually few employees are required to demonstrate a creative progression to their responsibilities (non-routine technologies) (Dobson et al., 2004). It may be argued that routine technologies in MS can be explained by the considerable hierarchal organisation al structure. In such a representative the presence of bureaucracy is inevitable. It is valid to argue that the existing bureaucratic organisational structure should be improved by a more creative management process. This requires better entrepreneurial skills from the managers themselves. But this will enable to upgrade the inter-level communication quality.StrategyCorporate strategy is quite a a broad notion, but it can be state that the key objectives of MS is to accentuate its own brand, to improve the clothing segment in order to reach the balance between food and clothing retail. Furthermore, the company seeks to improve the line of seat Beauty in its retail stores, to accelerate the programme of store renewal, improve the supply chain and start to use the space in outlets more effectively (MS, 2009 MS, 2010). In May 2008 a press release stated that international sales and profits were up by 16.8% and 33% (http//news.bbc.co.uk) it could be suggested that MS are hoping to overcome some weaknesses of the UKs current economic climate with geographical diversification by increasing stores internationally.As it is seen, these business strategic issues require optimisation and rationalisation of the existing directions. This means that MS is to provide professional training and organisational learning for its employees. According to Morgan (2001) the corporation provides the training of technical skills and business competencies of their employees. Afterwards, the effectiveness analysis of the learning is conducted within six months (Schutt, 2006).It may be argued by the author that the discussed strategic orientation of MS requires more specialised training of the employees. Furthermore, the training should not be academic by nature, but it must be integrated into the practical fulfillment of responsibilities. It is suppositional that learning groups should be organised within departments and the team work is to be emphasised in such learning. The mode l of organisational design context can be criticised for the fact that it does not take into account the dimension of industry. retail industry, in which Marks Spencer is engaged, is attributed to numerous specific features that do matter in the aspects of organisational learning, entrepreneurial skills and competencys. First of all, this industry is customer-oriented (Stanford, 2005). Second, the whole structure should be aimed to provide a stable and high-quality service. From this standpoint, culture of communication, fast reaction between the organisational layers and strong leadership are sufficient.4. Organisational CultureThe model of organisational culture has been chosen for watchword be mystify it embraces a wide range of management categories associated with the company. It is possible to discuss leadership styles, controls and rewards in organisational processes. managerial ethics and inter-industry specifics are also included into the model (Pinches, 1999). As it was mentioned, the previous model lacked these industry- related issues. However, the framework was formulated on the instauration of very fundamental assumptions about how organisations work and how they are managed (Cameron and Quinn, 2006) these assumptions may not be true of all organisations in practice the model also represents that each of the four inputs are of equal importance in prescribing culture, this may not always be the case.Organisational processesDiscussing the leadership styles in Marks Spencer it is quite difficult to generalise since different managers can choose different leadership depending on personal preferences, educational background and experience. Nevertheless, the top managers of the company have been numerously characterised in the past as having an autocratic leadership style (Williams, 1992). This means that with such state of affairs the authority of managers is high, but the autonomy of departments, groups and individuals in the decision-making pro cess is low (Messick and Kramer, 2005 Mullins, 2007). This is partially explained by the centralised vertical structure with considerable number of layers. It is difficult to judge whether this style is the best one for MS, but it is valid to assume that it contributes to bureaucracy, lower motivation and absence of the need of personal development of employees. Hence, the management can be at to the lowest degree recommended to improve the autonomy of the creative departments. The employees engaged in non-routine technologies should be managed consultatively.According to Stiegert and Kim (2009) the rewards and bonuses for the employees in MS have been reduced considerably with the coming of the global financial crisis. A press release in May 2008 stated that store teams are set to share 12.8 million the previous year MS paid a record of 91 million in bonuses to its 75,000 staff (http//investmentmarkets.co.uk). This could generate negative effect on the motivation and productivene ss of the personnel. It can be argued that the corporation should find the possibility to reward the most active and progressive managers and employees. However, Stuart Rose believes MS are expecting market conditions to remain difficult for the foreseeable future and are managing the business accordingly. Tight investment trust control and management of costs are priority. (http//corporate.marksandspencer.com) The company announced cuts of 1000 jobs in January 2009 this could create uncertainty in the workforce that may lead to a lack of motivation, morale and increase absenteeism levels due to stress and anxiety.cognitive processesOne of the strongest features of MS is that the company supports professional ethics. This characteristic refers to both the employees and customers of the company. Managerial decisions and actions cannot contradict to the existing regulations (MS, 2010). Nevertheless, the process of strategic thinking is vertical as in the case of organisational struct ure. It is valid to argue that lower rank managers should be intricate into the process of strategic thinking.BehavioursGroup member behaviour in Marks Spencer can be described as traditional teamwork. This mixture of member and manager behaviour is characteristic to centralised vertical organisational structures (Morgan, 2001). such(prenominal) form of behaviour implies lower control by group members and greater control by group facilitators. A draw, the company can be criticised for increase control over employees and strict frameworks in which the employees have to perform their functions.valueThe values of Marks Spencer are the following quality, service, innovation, trust and commitment towards employees and determine people (MS, 2010). The implementation of Plan A strives to meet the environmental concerns of the company, employees and customers, further people to live a greener lifestyle (MS, 2010). Human resources are among the highest values of the company. However, s uch direction is to be confirmed by the practical actions of the corporation.5. entrepreneurial SkillsAnother model that can be applied to characterise Marks Spencer is the entrepreneurial skills model. It has been chosen for the discussion because it vividly illustrates the necessary components of core managerial skills and competencies developing that take place within the company to contribute towards forming the organisations culture and design. However though, research to determine whether identifiable relationships exist between the action of the firm, the learning mode of the organisation and organisational competence does not provide clear statistically significant relationships and further work is clearly needed (Chaston et al, 1999).entrepreneurial skills- The necessary components of core managerial skills and competenciesResearch and practice connected to competence is focused by the ambition to achieve superior performance, and for economic gain or business success (Sp encer and Spencer, 1993). As it has been already mentioned, the personnel of Marks Spencer participate in regular organisational learning aimed to develop the core skills and competencies (Johansson, 2004).However, the researcher argues that such learning is necessary in the first place for the management of the company to develop entrepreneurial skills Deakins and Freel (2003) proclaim that there is need for sophisticated knowledge and competencies to operate larger production runs and manage a workforce. It may be stated that the connection to the industry should be emphasised at every stage. The business should focus on the management to build a reliable customer-oriented service.An Industry opportunity has been spotted by management in the implementation of Plan A, in which MS feel has motivated employees and involved them in taking part in contributing to the good cause that they have an interest in in the community where they and the customers live. Costs have also been redu ced in result of Plan A, with a 50 million surplus in 2009/2010 (http//plana.marksandspencer.com).It could be argued that the management team implementing these changes relate to the definition of an entrepreneur as according to Schumpeter and Kirzner. Shumpeter (1934) believed the entrepreneur is a special person who brings about change, whilst Kirzner (1979) believed the entrepreneur is anyone who is alert to the profitable opportunities for exchange who has additive knowledge which enables the recognition and performanceation of an opportunity (Deakins and Freel, 2003). The skill to recognise and exploit the positive financial, environmental and employee motivational implications of Plan A appears to be welcomed by the general public (through the knowledge gathered from customers (MS 2009) which could establish a competitive advantage). Also by the company and its employees due to the improvement of environmental issues that may affect all of the stakeholders and by the saving s that have been made that can be utilised in other means to the companys strategic advantage. individual(prenominal) motivation is necessary for managers. If they possess this, it would be a transmitter to further organisational levels. According to Lussier (2009) managers have come to realise that a motivated workforce can contribute powerfully to bottom-line profits and that the poor performance of employees can be caused inadvertently by managers themselves potentially due to their lack of motivation. In this light, the bonuses and rewards for the managers are extremely important. David Michels (Deputy Chairman of MS) expressed that he believes good administration encourages entrepreneurship and innovation within a framework of accountability (http//corporate.marksandspencer.com). The general management skills and human relationship skills appear to be the fundamental competencies for managers.6. Conclusion and passportIt may be concluded that on the one hand, the reduction of the levels in the organisational structure of Marks Spencer is beneficial for the company as the communication between the level, transparency and overall effectiveness increase. On the other hand, precise hierarchy and centralisation (mechanistic structure) make the company inflexible and difficult to adapt. MS can be recommended to flatten its structure even more because the number of departments and layers has remained high in spite of the restructuring that was attempted (MS, 2010). Furthermore, communication, quality control and managerial control over the fulfilment of employees responsibilities should be improved to ensure better performance in the company.Tight environmental conditions and the current strategic objectives emphasise the need for organisational learning and professional development for both common employees and managers. In particular, the professional training of common employees should be carried out in real teams (departments) and should be practical. The professional development of managers in MS should be oriented to develop their entrepreneurial skills. Marks Spencer can be recommended to concentrate on industry specifics, general management and human relationship. Furthermore, the company is to reward the most active and progressive managers creating motivation by all means. MS can be recommended to reconsider leadership styles with respect to creative workers engaged in non-routing technologies (from autocratic to consultative). In addition, lower rank managers are to be involved into the decision-making process of MS that may encourage them to act in a more enthusiastic intrapreneurial way.