Monday, October 14, 2019
Childhood disorders Essay Example for Free
Childhood disorders Essay CHILDHOOD DISORDERS While children can have similar mental health problems that adults have, like anxiety or depression, childrens problems often have a different focus. Children may have difficulty with changes associated with growing up, such as beginning school. They may lag behind in comparison to how other children their age are progressing, or during stressful times, they may behave like a younger child would do. Even when children do have problems that also appear in adults, the problem tends to look different in a child. For example, anxious children are often very concerned about their parents and other family members. They may want to be near loved ones at all times to be sure that everyone is all right. This site covers the following topics: Childhood Anxiety, Encopresis, Enuresis, and Oppositional Behavior. Childhood Anxiety Childhood anxiety occurs when a child is overly anxious, experiences separation anxiety, or avoids certain situations, people, or places. Usual signs of childhood anxiety include excessive distress when separated from home or from family members, worry about losing a loved one, worry about being lost or kidnapped, fear of going to school or away from home, difficulty sleeping away from home, and nightmares. Physical complaints such as stomachaches and headaches are common when the child is anticipating being separated from parents or other family members, such as spending the weekend with grandparents. These symptoms sometimes develop after an upsetting event in the childs life, such as the death of a loved one or a pet, beginning or changing schools, moving, or being ill. Some evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial for treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of childhood anxiety, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Anxiety Disorders of Association of America: Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents site has specific information about how anxiety disorders appear in children thatÃ may be different from adult anxiety. Encopresis Encopresis is the inability to control bowel movements, resulting in defecation (bowel movement) in clothing, in the bed, or on the floor. Encopresis is diagnosed in children who are at least 4 years old, although frequently children younger than 4 also cannot control their bowels. Encopresis more commonly affects boys than girls. Some evidence suggests that behavior modification is beneficial for treatment of encopresis. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of encopresis, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Childrens Medical Center at the University of Virginia (Kids Health) has an excellent website with more information about normal bowel habits and facts on encopresis. Enures:Enures is, commonly known as bedwetting, is repeated urination during the day or night into bed or clothes. Enuresis is diagnosed in children who are at least 5 years old, although younger children often do have difficulty controlling urination. Behavioral treatment is well-established as a beneficial treatment for enuresis. Behavioral treatment usually involves the use of a urine alarm device and parent education. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of enuresis, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. Click on the Fact Sheet on Bed-Wetting (PDF) for more facts on enuresis and some tips on helping your child with this problem. If you are interested in obtaining a urine alarm device, use your web browser to search forurine alarm device to find companies who sell these products on the internet. Oppositional Behavior Oppositional behavior includes things like losing ones temper, arguing with parents or teachers, refusing to follow rules, being mean or seeking revenge, deliberately annoying people, being angry and resentful, blaming others for ones own mistakes, and persistently being stubborn and unwilling to compromise. Usually oppositional behavior occurs at home, but it may also occur at school or in the community. Oppositional behavior is common in both preschool children and in adolescents. Parent Management Training is well-established as a beneficial treatment for oppositional behavior inÃ children. Parent Management Training involves helping parents learn new skills for dealing with oppositional and defiant behavior. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of oppositional behavior, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Not My Kid site has links with information on oppositional behavior, parent guides, anger control tips, and support groups. PAGBASA ang pagbasa ay isang proseso o paraan ng pagkuha ng ideya, informasyon o kahulugan sa mga simbulong nakalimbag. ito ay nkktulong rin sa ating kaalaman upang lumawak ang ating isipan. Ano ang salik sa pagbasa at proseso ng pagbasa? Ang mga salik na nakakapekto sa pagbasa ng isang tao ay pisyolohikal, sikolohikal, pangkaisipan, pangkapaligiran, panlipunan at panlinggwistika. Ano ang salik sa pagbasa at proseso ng pagbasa? Ang mga salik na nakakapekto sa pagbasa ng isang tao ay pisyolohikal, sikolohikal, pangkaisipan, pangkapaligiran, panlipunan at panlinggwistika. Teorya ng pagbasa: teorya ng pagbasa a. Teoryang Bottom-Up- Ito ay isang traditional na pagbasa. Ito ay bunga ng teoryang behaviorist na higit na nagbibigay pokus sa kapaligiran sa paglinang ng komprehension sa ang mga uri ng pagsulat ay ang mga sumusunod: 1. akademik 2. teknikal 3. jornalistik 4. reperensyal 5. propesyonal 6. Malikhain Mga Layunin sa Pagsulat Ekspresiv Transaksyunal Ã © Isa itong impormal na paraan ng pagsulat. Ã © Gumagamit ito ng unang panauhan naako, ko, akin, at iba pa, sa pagsasalaysay. Ã © Sarili ng manunulat ang target nitong mambabasa. Ã © Naglalarawan ito ng personal na damdamin, saloobin, ideya at paniniwala. Ã © Nakapaloob din dito ang sariling karanasan ng manunulat at pala-palagay sa mga bagay-bagay na nangyayari sa paligid. Ã © Malya ang paraan ng pagsulat dito at walang sensura. Hindi gaanong mahalaga rito ang gramatika at pagbaybay ng ga salita bagkus mahalaga rito na mailabas kung ano ang talagang naiisip at nararamdaman ng isang tao. Ã © Halimbawa nito ay dyornal, talaarawan, personal na liham at pagtugan sa ilang isyu. Ã © Layunin nito na maipahayag ang sariling pananaw, kaisipan at damdamin sa pangyayari. Ã © Ito ay isang pormal na paraan ng pagsulat na may tiyak na target na mambabasa, tiyak na layunin at tiyak na paksa. Ã © Karaniwang ginagamit dito ang ikatlong panauhan na siya, sila, niya, nila, at iba pa sa paglalahad ng teksto Ã © Ibang tao ang target nitong mambabasa. Ã © Hindi ito masining o malikhaing pagsulat bagkus itoy naglalahad ng katotohanan na sumusuporta sa pangunahing ideya. Ã © Nagbibigay ito ng interpretasyon sa panitikan, nagsusuri, nagbibigay ng impormasyon, nanghihikayat, nangangatwiran, nagtuturo o kayay nagbibigay ng ensahe sa iba. Ã © Kontrolado ang paraan ng psagsulat dahil may pormat o istilo ng pagsulat na kailangang sundin. Ã © Halimbawa nito ay balita, artikulo, talambuhay, patalastas, liham sa pangangalakal, papel sa pananaliksik, ulat, rebyu, sanaysay na pampanitikan, sanaysay na naghihikayat, sanaysay na nangangatwiran, interbyu, editorial, dokumentaryo at iba pa.