Wednesday, October 2, 2019

The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Es

The feminization of males of aquatic and mammalian species has been documented around the world. The purpose of this paper is to review how estrogen in the water supply is causing the feminization of males of animal and human variety. Natural and synthetic estrogens have been found in the water supply, most notably in the effluent water from waste treatment facilities. Experiments, tests and research on the effects of estrogen on mammalian and fish species has been done in the past with conclusive evidence of feminization among the experimental animals. The tests were done in both laboratory and natural settings and included different types of fish species and mammalian species because estrogen can affect a wide array of species. This feminization of males can prove to be detrimental to species survival because of a skewed sex ratio and decreased sperm capabilities. Through research and tests the extent of the effects of estrogens on a body can be seen and from these tests suitable m easures to reduce estrogen in the water supply can be made. Introduction Estrogens are causing the feminization of males, especially invertebrates at an alarming rate. Estrogen is a group of steroid hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body (The Free Dictionary 2011). Estrogen is found naturally in females, and males in low concentrations. Two naturally occurring estrogens are estradiol, usually referred to as E2 and estrone, referred to as E1 (Wright-Walters and Volz 2007). Not only are natural estrogens affecting the water supply, but synthetic estrogens are also. Synthetic estrogen is a chemical compound created by chemical synthesis and contains estrogenic activity, however natural estrogen and s... ...eminization. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. [Cited 22 March 2011]23(1), 3-8. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00819.x Tyler CR, Jobling S. 2008. Roach, Sex, and Gender-Bending Chemicals: The Feminization of Wild Fish in English Rivers. BioScience.[Cited 22 March 2011] 58(11), 1051-1059. Available from: doi:10.1641/B581108 Liney KE, Hagger JA, Tyler CR, Depledge MH, Galloway TS, Jobling S. 2006. Health Effects I n Fish of Long-Term Exposure to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works. Environmental Health Perspectives. [Cited 22 March 2011] 11481-89. Available from: doi:10.1289/ehp.8058 Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Downstream without hormones: Can rabbit food solve an emerging environmental problem? [Cited 22 November 2011] Available from: Environmental Pollution:

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