Saturday, March 2, 2019

A Critical Assessment of the Eclectic Theory

INTRODUCTION It is true of everything that the scratch line steps ate both the most important and the most difficult. To come out with, theorization consists of a set of definitions of innovations. The elemental concepts underlying the eclectic surmise of the multinational enterprise (MNE)(1) are currently being criticized by the internalization theorists(2) in that the proclaimership advantage is double counting, that is, the internalization and localization principle factors are necessity and sufficient to explain the existence and growth of the MNE.The controversy seems to require a thorough examination of the concept of the ownership advantage. However, the examination should extend still afield. Our objective in this paper is to assess critically the three basic concepts in the eclectic theory, i. e. , the ownership advantage, the internalization advantage, and the location advantage and to suggest the beginnings of an pick framework to deal with the MNE and FDI (i. e. , foreign direct investment). REDUNDANCY OF THE OWNERSHIP ADVANTAGESome Features of the Electic possibility First of all, we moldiness set up the target of our examination. The eclectic theory, check off I, as advocated by Dunning is as follows Dunning 198179 1. It (i. e. , the blotto) possesses net ownership advantages vis-a-vis mansions of other(a) nationalities in serving particular foodstuffs. These ownership advantages largely take the unionise of the possession of intangible pluss, that are, at least for a period of time, exclusive or specific to the firm possessing them. . Assuming condition 1 is satisfied, it must be more beneficial to the enterprise possessing these advantages to use them itself rather than to share or lease them to foreign firms, that is, for it to impute its advantages through an extension of its own activities rather than externalize them through licensing and similar contracts with independent firms. 3.Assuming conditions 1 and 2 are satisf ied, it must be breadable for the enterprise to utilize these advantages in conjunction with at least round factor inputs (including natural resources) away its home country otherwise foreign markets would be served entirely by exports and domestic markets by domestic production. Four consumes of the eclectic theory should be noted here, as far as they are concerned with our argument. Firstly, costless to say, the concept of the advantage is a relative concept i. e. advantage of a firm vis-a-vis the others tautologically means their disadvantage vis-a-vis the firm. The advantage is tacit from the viewpoint of economic competitiveness and profitability, and thus it takes the form of an economic asset whether tangible or intangible. Thus, the asset value is measured by capitalizing the catamenia of expected future earnings by means of the rate of return. Secondly, the concept of internalization is interpreted as internalization of an ownership advantage rather than that of an f aint market. 3) Thirdly, the existence per se of the ownership advantage has nothing to do with the internalization thus, the ownership advantage is logically independent of the internalization advantage. Finally, the ownership advantage is logically independent of the location advantage thus, the ownership advantage can be measured without referring to location factors. (4) The system of logic of the Internalization Theory Let us focus on the mho and third features and compare them with the basic logic of the internalization theory. The distinctive feature of the internalization theory is its recognition that the firm is an economic institution, the objective of which is to maximize profit (i. e. , super-normal profit in the Marshallian sense) in the world of market imperfections. The firm attempts to maximize its revenue and besmirch its be the firm maximizes its organizational benefits after remunerating all the factors of production, R&D, marketing, and management.Firstly, if arms-length markets are inefficient and incur huge movement costs, the firm would replace them with its unified ownership and control (i. e. , the internal quasi-market)(6) and minimize its internalization costs(7) i. e. , the internalization of markets. Secondly, if no market exists for external economies specify to be private costs minus cordial costs), the firm would give them under common ownership and control and prevent them from leaking outside i. e. , the internalization of externalities. 8) Thirdly, if internal economies defined to be private benefits and, at the same time, social benefits) are expected after totally eliminating markets, whether internal or external, the firm would not only internalize the markets but also reorganize and trend the activities under the common ownership and control i. e. , desegregation under internalization. (9,10) market imperfections may exist in final-product markets as well as in intermediate-product markets of physical product s (i. e. components and semi-finished products) and intellectual products (i. e. , knowledge or information). final-product markets, however imperfect they are, the firms cannot internalize markets since, needless to say, consumers are independent of producers and merchants. They can only acquire super-normal profit by manipulating their market power. Note that although some academics misunderstood,(11) there is no warranty that the internalization increases efficiency and social welfare in both intermediate- and final-product markets.On the contrary, it is rather practicable that the internalization by the MNE creates imperfect competition or noncompetitive (monopsonistic) situations and thus increases social costs by means of restricting the take of high-tech goods, building up an entry barrier by straight and/or horizontal integration, effective collusion, etc. It is also quite possible that the integration takes part in restricting competition and more than offsets its op timistic benefits in social welfare. (12,13) In relation to social costs, we should pay some attention to a new concept, sensed consummation costs. Transaction costs can be classified into three categories i. e. , those inherent in trade good transactions per se,(14) those inherent in oligopolistic or imperfect competition, and those originating from government regulations. (15) Oligopolistic or imperfect competition places competitors in a situation of uncertainty in respect of potential transaction costs as a takings of arrns-length transactions. Concerns about the dissipation of valuable information may well blow up the value of subjectively perceived transaction costs to the extent of intimately prohibiting arms-length transactions.Uncertainty in oligopolistic or imperfect competition creates self-inflating feature to the perceived transaction costs. Certain embedded social relations modify pure economic rationality(16) and affect the prime(a) of internalization. Furtherm ore, bounded and creeping rationality of the management makes the strategy (i. e. , choosing between internalization, integration, and arms-length transactions) moderately rigid once it has been decided upon. 17) Internalization, in these circumstances, may be perceived as private-cost minimization, but not as social-cost minimization. 18 Another important feature of the internalization theory is that it expounds interrelations between production, R&D, marketing, and management. (19) The internalization of the markets and externalities of these activities and their integration generate the advantages of the firm over the others. The firm may exercise its market power when it internalizes and integrates them, so as

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