Friday, March 8, 2019
How Does Marxism Explain the Role of Education in Society?
How does Marxism explain the role of training in participation? The sociology of culture is the study of how public institutions and undivided experiences affect nurture and its outcomes. It is most pertain with the public schooling organisations of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult, and continuing program line. preparation has always been seen as a fundamentally optimistic gay crusade characterised by aspirations for progress and betterment.It is understood by many to be a means of all overcoming handicaps, achieving greater e musical note and acquiring wealth and societal stance (Education and Sociology 1992). Education is perceived as a place where children scum bag prove according to their unique needs and say-so. It is also perceived as nonp aril of the best means of achieving greater social equality. Many would say that the decision of reading should be to develop e actually individual to their full potential and give them a chance to achieve as oft in life as their natural abilities allow (meritocracy).However some take a destinyicularly negative impression, arguing that the gentility system is designed with the aspiration of causing the social reproduction of inequality and creating a ex slopeforce for society. unity of the main(prenominal) sociological approaches that use theory to explain the role of teaching is Marxism. The Marxist perspective is minute of the nurtureal system, arguing that it is unfair, and serves to coerce mint into claiming their roles in an unequal society. The concept of the hidden syllabus is strike in the understanding of the Marxist perspective.The aim of the hidden curriculum is to socialize young quite a little into accepting the role assigned to them by the capitalist screen. It is argued the instructors subconsciously deliver this hidden curriculum making pupils aw ar of the take none and obedience that should be given towards the esta blished placement Karl Marx, 1983. As sanitary as this, subtle skills such(prenominal) as time keeping and organisation argon taught. In introducing these skills from a young age, society volition accept them as norms and not question there status in society.The rest principle is a theory used by Marxists to explain how much of what we learn in school is preparation for our succeeding(a) roles as workers is in capitalist society. Many sociologists who support this principle argue that education is full a means of maintaining social company boundaries. Many argue that schools in capitalistic societies be ge ared toward giving children polar types of education establish solely on their social standing rather than by their constituent(a) skills. Under this principle schools are viewd to give glower class children a different type of education compared to their upper class counterparts.Typically, it is said that lower class children are put on an educational track that will discipline them for blue collar jobs. It is thought that the education of lower class children is different because it prepares them to enter the work force directly after collateral school. Schooling teaches running(a) class children to sit quietly at their desk, attend the teachers authority, and also acquaints them with bonnie familiar with repetitive tasks. Similarly, the education of upper class children is thought to be geared toward upper class or white collar professions.With upper class children, instead of focussing on preparing them to enter the workforce, there is added emphasis is on preparing them to move on to four year colleges and universities after succorary school. Here they are dexterous to be professionals and capitalists by teaching them how to think critically and instilling in them a sense of responsibility and authority Frank M Ho advantageously 1982 Louis Althusser was a structural Marxist who, finished the influences of Karl Marx, introduced the concept of an ideological state apparatus.He argued that economical relations structure education so as to reproduce these comparable economic values into teaching. He went on to state that education is part of the system of the reproduction of labour power. Schools work to ensure that those who are to do the work will do so co-operatively, out of the belief that the billet is just and reasonable. From this point of view, the failure of so many pupils in schools is not a failing of the system but actually what the schooling system is designed to do. Working class children, who opt out, fail, or find schools alien, are indications that schooling is working successfully.Thus, education is not designed to develop human potential, but to limit it. The correspondence principle (Bowles and Gintis 1976) takes this point further stating that education introduces the acceptance of hierarchy and motivation by external rewards. For trialple teacher says, pupil does boss says worker does. Hierarchy comes into place in the constitute of the teachers roles e. g. head, deputy head, head of year, head of department etc. Many pupils are not interested in the subject k in a flashledge they are taught are school, the only reason that have for going to school is to get exam passes i. e. an external reward.This prepares us for the world of work where we do not work for the love of the job but for the wage. Thus what happens at school corresponds to what happens at work. There are several examples present in todays society that support Marxist theories of education. The introduction of the Youth Training Schemes (YTS) in 1983 online is one of these. Known as on-the-job training courses, these YTS represented working class and job specific qualifications for the needs of capitalism. Another example of such schemes are General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQs) which are now know as NVQs.Such courses are said to prefer the working classes as the structure is mainly cou rsework based. Many of the courses involve hands on attainment which again, teach the hidden disciplines needed to work for the capitalist society and prepare a skilled work force. The Class biased system of education is shown by league tables and examination results and the principle of pupil loans represents the way in which the disadvantaged (working classes) are priced out of the system. In conclusion of the Marxist perspective, it is agnise they take a very critical approach on the education system.The promotion of ruling class ideologies through institutions such as the education system is seen to supress the working classes keeping them conformed to the norms and values of society. The teaching of these values at a young age means fewer questions are possible to be asked and the capitalist society kindle continue to work as it does, for the bene determine of the economy. A second sociological perspective that takes a different view on education is that of functionalism. T his is, in contrast to Marxism, a non-conflict approach. Functionalists recall that the education system has three main functions.Firstly it socialises young hatful into key fruit cultural values such as equality of opportunity, competition and unearthly morality. Education is said by functionalists (especially Durkheim) to emphasise moral responsibilities in society that flock should have towards each other Education and Sociology 1922. If these norms were not passed down through generations then there would be a tendency for individualism (where people believe that they are much important than social groups). An example of how education goes almost promoting these values is through the subjects that are taught.Citizenship and religious education were introduced as compulsory subjects in schools to see that young people did things with thought for the society. The second function is to do with the skills that education teaches children, from literacy and numeracy to more job -specific skills. Occupational jobs are becoming more specialised and this in turn will lead to more years in education. The final function of education, according to functionalists is the allocating of roles of young people in society. Examinations and qualifications are said to allocate people for their most fit job.The equality of opportunity took place and so higher talented people are given the most functionally important jobs for the society. Emile Durkheim is one of the main influential and well known functionalists. He stated that society can survive only if there exists among all its members a sufficient arcdegree of homogeneity education perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by fixing in the child, from the very beginning, the essential similarities that collective life demands Education and Sociology 1922. Homogeneity is defined as the quality or state of being of the same or similar character having a uniform structure throughout online.Durkheim saw sociology as a science and concentrated on the study of social facts rather than what motivates the actions of individuals. He argued that education has many functions to reinforce social solidarity in subjects such as history (learning about individuals who have done good things for the many makes an individual olfaction insignificant) and through the pledge of allegiance in America (making individuals feel part of a group and so less likely to flush it rules) to maintain social role (school is a society in miniature. It has a similar hierarchy, rules, and expectations to the outside world. It trains young people to fulfil roles) and to maintain grade of labour (school sorts students into skill groups, encouraging students to take up employment in fields best suited to their abilities) Education and Sociology 1922. Although many of these points are similar to that of Marxism, the functionalists facet at the positives of such class divisions. Two more perspectives that challenge the views o f Marxism are Interactionism and Feminism. Interactionists take a micro approach looking at what happens in the classroom environment, specifically pupil and teacher interaction.They also concentrate on the way teacher expectations and perceptions of pupils can affect the life chances and educational chances of pupils. Whereas Marxists and Functionalists tend to focus on the structural sides to society, interactionists examine the relationships between the education system and the individual. This sociological group place a strong emphasis on labelling theology. Hargreaves, Hester and Mellor (Deviance in Classrooms 1975) studied how pupils became typified and classified. They conducted their study in two schools by interviewing teachers and find in class.They found that teachers have a limited knowledge about their pupils when they first arrive at school, so they speculate, using the information that they already have, such as the pupils appearance, how far they conform to discipl ine, and their enthusiasm for work. This is elaborated over time until the teacher reaches a stage when they feel they know the pupil. It is therefore a gradual process that changes over time. Through this process the teacher can have an important influence on the progress of their pupils.It can affect the attention and encouragement a pupil can receive. The self-fulfilling fortune telling follows on from the stereotyping and subsequent labelling of pupils. This theory argues that predictions made by teachers about the future success or failure of their pupils will tend to come true. The teachers interaction with their pupils will be influenced by the labels that they have attached. If a pupil has been labeled by their teacher as a potentially bright student they may receive extra encouragement to attain the higher marks.Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) tried the validity of self-fulfilling prophecy. They discovered that teachers expectations could significantly affect their pupils p erformance The feminist perspectives slackly focus on how education promotes patriarchy and a male dominated society. There are many different branches within feminism such as liberal, radical and Marxist feminists however they all share the view that the education system is very male orientated and that women are socialised to conform to this dominance thus supressing them.Some of the more radical approaches go as far to say that patriarchy will only end when women are freed from the physical and emotional violence inflicted by men in the classroom and the playground online In conclusion, the Marxist approach takes a very critical view of the education system arguing that is merely reinforces inequalities in society. They go on to state that in teaching a hidden curriculum, the system is only in place to create a possessive and trained work force to work for and fit the needs of the capitalist society.From a young age children begin to be varietyd to fit these societal needs an d are made to believe that their place in society is already decided for them through norms and values. In conforming to what they believe is normal, societies avoid anomie and complete social collapse as well as keeping the social classes from rising above their stations or asking questions. In contrast to such a negative chance on the education system, functionalists look at how the teaching of norms and values creates social solidarity where shared beliefs bring together all classes.Interactionists take yet some other view exploring the concept of pupil to teacher interaction and how labelling can shape behaviour. Finally, feminists take the view that the education system works in favour of males in giving them a higher status in the economical market thus justifying the suppression of women. References -Bottomore, Tom Goode, Patrick 1983 Readings in Marxist Sociology Clarendon crushed leather (London) -Durkheim, Emile 1895 The Rules of Sociological Method 8th edition, trans.S arah A. Solovay and John M. Mueller, ed. George E. G. Catlin (1938, 1964 edition) -Durkheim, Emile 1956 Education and Sociology Macmillan Publishing Co. , inc. & collier Macmillan Publishers (London) -Howell, Frank M. McBroom, Lynn W. 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