Sunday, March 3, 2019
History of Public Health Systems Essay
customary wellness is or so help oneselfing everyone to stay intelligent rather than focusing specifically on the case-by-case, with the aim to promote wellness, defend individuals from threats to their wellness and observeing ill-wellness. Public wellness policies welcome made a fundamental impact in increasing a persons boilersuit carriage expectancy and improving health. (Public wellness)Public health StrategiesPublic health strategies argon devised in pose to prevent the spread of unhealthinesss, prolong life and promote health. This send a route be done through the usance of supervise, identifying, compel programmes etc.Monitoring the health status of the confederacy Is a pigment grammatical construction of health strategies that are in place deep down the UK. This health strategy helps to monitor any(prenominal) changes that fleet in the health of the creation, on with alerting individuals to any potential problems. health throughout the UK is mo nitored by type of life, infant deathrate rates and life expectancy (Baker L, 2008, BTEC tribeal health and Social Care discussion 2, rogue 2) The monitoring of health throughout the plain allows for advanced planning of local services within the community that whitethorn be at chance of reliable health problems. The monitoring of health at a local level allows for breeding to be recorded before world compared to the health of other communities across the country. local anaesthetic information on health is an all-important(prenominal) aspect as it is calm on a geographical basis throughout the UK, for shell vaccination rates, hospital admissions etc.This is one way on health tramp be monitored, as in the cases of other communities they whitethorn have high incidence rates of certain diseases whereas others may have low incidences of diseases. Communities that have a higher rate of disease are monitored further and health promotion campaigns will be veritable be fore existence border into effect in order to get the risk of disease bed covering within the community. The health status of a community freighter motley throughout the nation and depend on a anatomy of factors, of which can includeAgeGenderSocio-economic conditionsGeneticsEnvironmental factorsThrough the practice session of monitoring health changes any problems that may arise in the incoming within communities can be identified in advance in order for it to be prevented. For example the rise of sexually transmitted diseases within local communities would monitored in order to predict any potential problems that may die in the future and stop them from taking place.Identifying the health take of the population The health of the nation is measured by using mortality and morbidity rates of which have indicated how people are direct surviving longer than that of their predecessors.Identifying the health needs of the population is another important aspect of normal hea lth strategies within the UK this takes place when trends and patterns in local communities across the nation are establish. By identifying the health needs of individuals located in a particular community means that the need for services can therefore be identified. Patterns can be detected throughout the country through the use of home(a) statistics. topic statistics are apply in order to determine how health can be im conjure upd and how areas of restore can be highlighted, along with the effects of ill health may be overturnd and prevented. Patterns of illness and disease can possibly be the result of certain factors, of which include genetics, environment, lifestyle, education etc.However near parts of the country may be much susceptible to certain illnesses and diseases than others due to the patterns that are outlined by the content Statistics and social trends information. evolution programmes to reduce risk and screen for other(a) disease natural covering is th e fulfill of identifying apparently healthy people who may be at increase risk of a disease or condition. They can so be offered information, further tests and appropriate treatment to reduce their risk and/or any complications arising from the disease orcondition. As defined by the UK subject Screening Committee (UK NSC). Health programmes are developed based on the information gathered by epidemiologists. An epidemiologist is a person who studies patterns of diseases or health risks in population groups, societies, and cultures.The Department of Health produces a green paper that proposes what the targets of health should be and is based on these decisions as to how the government implement the findings. From this a white paper is produced, of which goes into detail as to how and what course of action is taken. An example of recent white papers can include Our Healthy Nation and Our fitter Nation (1999). The aim of the white paper is to inform and harbor members of the world ly concern by influencing social changes in regards to the health of the nation. (L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 4). Examples of current public health programmes include Five a day campaign, MMR immunisation programme and the local anesthetic NHS Smoking Service.Controlling hereditary disease Controlling communicable diseases is an important aspect of public health strategies in the UK, of which involves planning to include masking and betimes sleuthing, closing off and treatment, containment, prevention and cure eradication where possible. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 7) The early detection of a disease can prove useful, as it can leave alone insight on the lawsuit and the spread of the disease along with being able to highlight any potential risks that the disease may cause to an individual or group of people especially in defenceless people such as young children, and the elderly. Young children and the elde rly are more susceptible to disease due to their immune remains being much weaker than the average individual therefore it is important in the early detection of an infection in order to stop this from occurring.Isolating individuals with communicable diseases enables to remain control lead, in order to reduce and prevent the risk of ranch the disease. A resident residing in a care home that was diagnosed with tuberculosis for example, would be moved to a room on their own, in order to ensure that the disease is not then passed to another service substance abuser withinthe home is one example.Containing a disease can occur at a national and local level this can occur at once the source of the infection has been identified and plan has been developed and gravel in place in order to reduce the risk of the disease reoccurring. The measures that are taken in which to contain the disease can change from short, medium, to long term measures. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and S ocial Care Book 2, page 7)Short term measures limited visiting, unnecessary travel, treatment and isolation Medium/long term measures immunisation programme, appropriate medical treatment, educating individuals about the risks, eradicating incidence of disease where it proves possible to do soEradicating disease is now becoming possible due to advances in research and engineering. Advances in technology means that more is known about the causes of illness and disease along with how the disease is spread. This advance has been made possible through the use of early detection and surveillance, monitoring, screening, treatment and immunisation programmes, health education and promotion. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 8)Promote the health of the population Health promoters are tasked with the promoting the health of the population on a local and national scale. Health promoters are based in a variety of settings, such as, GP surgeries, drop-in centr es, radio, magazines and schools. They are prioritised on local need and the handiness of funding for the necessary resources. These priorities can be identified through the form of shrouded illnesses and diseases through local statistics.Any illnesses or diseases taken from the statistics prove to be either life threatening or cause an individual to spend a substantial amount of time in hospital would then be given top priority in the promoting of health. Individuals who may be overweight can potentially be at risk of coronary heart disease later on in life. The health promoter would thereby ensure that diets and exercise are promoted through the use of proper channel on both a local and national level.Planning and evaluating the national provision of health and social care The National provision of Health and Social care within the UK is planned and evaluated by the National Health Service and Social Services. This is based on the information provided by health and social care professionals on a local, regional and national scale across the UK. The government have produced guidelines and information to show how they will tackle the problems controlling and preventing infective disease spread. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 8) The strategies outlined in the guidelines by the government are a series of proposed actions in order to create a system in which to prevent, investigate and control the threat of infectious diseases and to address health protection on a wider scale.M1 Describe the origins of public health policy in the UK from the 19th century to the present day.In this essay I will compare two different health measures in the 19th century and how they have made an impact on society today. I am also going to compare and condone the living conditions of towns and cities in the 19th, 20th and 21st century. Public health has developed considerably over the divisions and the changes that have occurred overtime re flect on the health concerns of the nation during each time period. These changes are what have produced the Public Health system that is currently in place today. Over the years vast amounts of medical knowledge of todays health professionals have increased in response as to how diseases are spread, along with the advances in medicine that have aided in helping to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases.During the 19th century the living conditions were exceedingly abject and there were various health issues of which include overcrowding in housing and overcrowding in general, thereby resulting in the spread of disease.The Poor Law do (1834) was established in 1834. The Poor Law was designed in order to reduce the cost of looking after the poor and impose a system whichwould be the same all across the country. The industrial revolution led to the development of towns and cities across the UK. The population of the nation had increased rapidly once the Poor Law Act was impleme nted. The countrys poverty remainder system had not been amended since 1601, before finally coming into bleed as a result of Edwin Chadwick, tin can Snow.The Public Health Act was first implemented in 1848 in order to ensure that hygienic conditions were provided for in populated areas across the UK. In response to the Public Health Act 1848 The General Board of Health was developed so as to ensure that all public health policies that were administered were carried out as in effect as possible. Edwin Chadwick was the first commissioner of the board. The implementation of the act allowed for authorities working with complaisant engineers and medics to improve sanitisation. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 14)Edwin Chadwick (1800-1890) was accredited for his work on the reformation of the Poor Law. Edwin Chadwick was appointed by the government to carry out investigations and research into current sanitation. Chadwick wrote a root outlining his findings known as The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population published in 1842. In his report Chadwick argued that disease had a direct link to living conditions. After the report was produced new measures were taken in order to help promote the safe disposal of human waste and rubbish. Chadwick believed that poor healthy conditions caused disease.John Snow (1813-1858) was a British physician commended for his work in relation to the cholera outbreak in 1854. Snow was an anaesthetist and epidemiologist enkindle in the practices of cleanliness and hygiene put in place to help prevent disease. Snow formed the link between the cholera outbreak to the bemire water residing in the water pump in vast Street. In 1854, Snow identified that a water pump in Broad Street located near one of the cess pits was what was contaminating the water thereby linking the Broad Street pump as the outbreak site of the disease. higher(prenominal) mortality rates were linked to the Broad Street pump. He had the traverse ofthe pump removed, and cases of cholera immediately began to diminish.Throughout the 20th century more Acts and Reforms were put in place in order to reduce the risk of spreading infection that led to illness and disease among the UK population. This included Beveridge cogitation (1942), NHS (1946), Black Report (1980), Acheson Report (1998), Our Health Nation (1997), Saving Lives Our Healthier Nation (1999).William Beveridge (1879-1963) produced The Beveridge Report in 1942, which went on to become the basis of a series of reforms after the Second World War, by looking into way on reducing inequalities in the health care provision. This report has been used as the foundation for most social legislation. The Beveridge Report was a major influence in the introduction of The Welfare State along with The National Health Service founded in 1949. The Beveridge report cerebrate on sanitation and slipway to improve and change the educational standards of area s which were highly affected by poverty. The report suggested that the working class gave a share of their wages in order to aid those who did not work, those of which who were either sick, unemployed, retired or widowed were then given these contributions.The government tasked Beveridge with the developing a report that was based on the ways that Britain should be rebuilt once the Second World War ended. The report was published in 1942 and provided recommendations to the government in order to find ways of tackling the five Giant Evils known as Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness.Edwin Chadwick 1842, William Beveridge 1942 and the etiolate base Report making healthier choices easier attempted to improve boilers suit public health. Whereas Chadwick focused on poverty, Beveridge focused on sanitation and the White motif was specific to health.Beveridge and the White radical Report making healthier choices easier focused on poverty and how it affected a persons overal l health. Whereas in the Beveridge report he chose to write about The Welfare State, whilst the White Paper talked about reducing inequalities to health.John Snow and the White Paper Report both used statistics in order to provide prove in order to give insight into the condition of public health and what need attention before giving suggestions on how to improve it. whole kit and caboodle CitedPublic Health. 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